January  05


AAPSU threatens bandh

ITANAGAR, Jan 4: The All Arunachal Pradesh Students’ Union (AAPSU) has threatened to impose a 12-hour state-wide bandh on February 2 next and follow it up with a 24-hour state-wide bandh on February 7 if the state government failed to address the union’s demand to enhance and release students’ stipends, ensure proper distribution of PDS commodities, renovate defunct hostels across the state and release the SSA teachers’ enhanced salaries along with arrears by February 1.  

The AAPSU had earlier submitted an ultimatum to the education minister over the same issues. “The ultimatum ended on December 30 last year, but the education department is yet to lift a finger to address it,” AAPSU president Takam Tatung said during a meeting at Hotel Donyi Polo Ashoka here today.  The department released only seven months’ stipend during the 2009-10 and the 2010-11 periods without offering any explanation to the suffering students, especially those who belong to poor families.

The matter of the SSA teachers’ salaries has also been hanging in the balance for quite some time.

While the government has on several occasions assured to address it, the possibility of translating its assurances into action remains remote unless the state government coughs up its matching share of Rs 97 crore accumulated over the years since 2002.

“The problem would not have surfaced if the government had the wisdom to release its share in yearly installments since 2002,” Tatung said.   

On the other hand, the lackadaisical, sporadic distribution of PDS commodities has had an adverse effect on the morale of teachers and students who are at times faced with hunger in remote areas of the state, he said.


Bandh culture should be rooted out: Association

ITANAGAR, Jan 4:  All Arunachal Pradesh Tribal Welfare Association (AAPTWA) today urged the district administration to root out bandh culture in state capital.

Condemning the sponsors of those bandh culture here, the association said that administration should deal with iron hand against any individual and organization that resort to bandh call. It opined that organization should adopt peaceful agitation rather than calling bandhs.


‘Prefer local players’

ITANAGAR, Jan 4: Alleging deprivation of local players by Arunachal Cricketer Association (ACA) in selection for various BCCI organized tournaments, the Arunachal Pradesh Scheduled Tribe Students’ Union (APSTSU), in a representation to its secretary has demanded to prefer  local players for such tournaments.

While appealing to ACA to conduct cricket matches regularly for exposing local talents, APSTSU urged the state Government to provide land for a permanent cricket ground within capital complex.

Meanwhile, APSTSU, in a separate memorandum to NERIST director, reiterated its earlier single-point demand of 30 percent reservation of seat for tribal students in the institute from the next academic session. It claimed that the director has assured to take up the issue with the higher authority.


Karate C’ship postponed

ITANAGAR, Jan 4: The 3rd state level Sotokan Karate Championship scheduled from January six to eight at Govt Hr. Sec. School, Bazar line, East Kameng has been postponed till second week of May, 2012 due to technical problem, according to organizing committee release.


‘Abstain from misusing Abo Tani name’

ITANAGAR, Jan 4: All Nyishi Youth Association appealed to the Abo Tani Clan Youth Organization to abstain from misusing the Abo Tani name.

It said that we all owe big duty towards preserving and protecting the name of Abotani. Any problems and issues relating to Tani clan should be discussed through symposiums and workshops.

Calling bandh call or strike for a meager issue will give a wrong message to the people, it said and urged ATCYO to reconsider their decision and organize a mass debate for greater interest of all people. Further, the elites of Abo Tani clan should take the responsibility of directing and guiding the youths, it added.


BSNL urged to improve mobile service

ITANAGAR, Jan 04: Once again BSNL has hit the headline for a wrong reason, as All East Kameng Border Students Union (AEKBSU) today urged the BSNL department to improve the mobile service in district at the earliest. The union lamented that despite serving 15 days ultimatum to the telecom authority for improvement of service,  there has been no improvement yet. It further said that in case of failure to fulfill its demand, it would resort to agitation against BSNL in the district.


East-West highway only solution to communication problem: NCP

ITANAGAR, Jan 4: The only way to get respite from frequent Assam bandh causing great problems to the people of Arunachal Pradesh is the construction of East-West Highway from Tawang to Tirap, said Nationalist Congress Party (NCP)  president Ngurang Pinch.

Lamenting communication bottleneck within the state, Pinch said until the dream highway project is completed the people of the state would continue to suffer from the menace since there is no alternative route through which people could reach different places and destinations within the state without touching Assam. Bandhs in Assam affects not only to the travelers but also disrupts regular supply of essential commodities to the state, he said.

He also urged various organizations in Assam to spare people from Arunachal Pradesh from purview of their all bandh calls since they have nothing to do with it.

The NCP president also suggested the state Government to solve all the pending inter-state boundary disputes with Assam permanently by taking the chance of all-Congress ruled Governments in the neighbouring state and Centre.

Meanwhile, Pinch appreciated the development initiative of Chief Minister Nabam Tuki in the state in general and Kimin in particular.


News Impact

Winged guests at Zemithang

ITANAGAR, Jan 4: The famed Black Necked Crane has been spotted in Zemithang Valley, Tawang in November-December last year.

Seven were spotted this year as compared to three last season.

The Black necked Crane, the only high altitude crane among the 15 species found in the world, during the breeding is confined to high altitude wetlands and marshes, in the Quinghai-Tibetan Plateau and from eastern Ladakh to Sichuan province. The wintering populations of the crane are found at lower altitudes in Quinghai on the Yunnan – Guizhou Plateau, north eastern Bhutan. Zemithang Valley in Tawang district of Arunachal Pradesh is one of the only two wintering habitat for Black Necked Crane in India.

The cranes were spotted by Lham Tsering of Pangchen Lumpo Muchat Community Conserved Area and Kokti of Pangchen Lakhar Community Conserved Area.  The villagers have been actively working in the area for conservation of rare wildlife found in the area which includes Red Panda, Himalayan Black Bear, Musk Dear, Leopard etc. with support from WWF-India. There are two Community Conserved area in the area – Pangchen Lumpo Muchat CCA (98sq.km) demarcated by villagers of Lumpo and Muchat and Pangchen Lakhar CCA (85sq.km) demarcated by villagers of Kharmen and Kalentang for conservation of rare flora and fauna of the area with support from WWF-India. In the valley there is a religious ban of any kind of hunting and documentation of Black Necked Crane this year by villagers is a part of their effort for the conservation and documentation of rich biodiversity of the area. Last year 3 Black Necked Crane were reported from this area and so the increase in number this year is very encouraging for the species which is already under serious threat, stated WWF-India.

Presence of Black Necked Crane can also enhance economic benefit to the villagers from community based tourism activities initiated by the villagers presently with support from WWF-India under which villagers have set up village camp site and home stays for accommodation of visitors. So far nearly 8 groups have visited and stayed in CBT facilities established in Lumpo and Muchat villages.

The Black Necked Crane (BNC) is classified as Vulnerable (VU C1) on the IUCN Red List 2003, listed in Appendix I of CITES, Appendices I and II of the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS or Bonn Convention) and listed as ‘threatened’ by Birdlife International. It is also one of the 28 bird species selected as a priority for CEPF investment and has been categorised as a Schedule I species under the Wildlife Protection Act (1972), of the Government of India.


Minister inspects fish ponds

ITANAGAR, Jan 4: Fisheries Minister Rajesh Tacho visited fish ponds at Doimukh and Nirjuli recently to encourage the people of the areas to take up fish cultivation for income generation.

The minister was accompanied by DFDO Nabam Tania and other officials of fisheries department and farmers.

The team visited fish pond of M Toko at Leki village and Tana Hari at Emchi village.

During his visit, he interacted with the farmers and informed them about prospect of fish cultivation and assured the people to provide all possible help from the department of fisheries to any farmer who wants to take up fish farming as their profession.

He also inspected agricultural activities being carried out around the fish pond of M Toko.


ITBP celebrates Sikh Guru’s birthday

ITANAGAR, Jan 4: The 10th Indo Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) force celebrated the 347th birthday of 10th and last Sikh Guru, Guru Govind Singh with great enthusiasm. A special prayer was performed on the occasion followed by ‘Langer’ in the unit Gurudwara.

Speaking on the occasion, Rajesh Kumar Tomar, Commandant 10th ITBP force highlighted the contributions of the Guru in improving and uplifting the society through his deeds and religious revolutions. He advised the people to follow the teachings of the Guru and serve the society with dedication.

The celebration was attended by ITBP jawans, their families and public of the area.


Mythological background of Si-Donyi festival in synopsis

Doli Nguki

According to the Tagin mythology the entire universe in the beginning was believed to be completely empty. In the course of formation and evolution of various unknown forms and mysteries, Kurium and Kulo appeared in that vast empty space. They were male and female respectively in liquid forms. As it was natural Kurium married Kulo and they procreated three children or sons namely, Rijumching, Riumsi and Riumdo.

In the process of formation and creation of various mythical and spiritual forms and figures Dorichiji also evolved in the universe. Accordingly to the Tagin belief, Dorichiji was created in the form of a human figure with the highest degree of wisdom and knowledge.

As time passed by, Riumsi and Riumdo the other two sons of Kurium and Kulo, were growing and expanding fastly and luxuriantly, since their birth thereby filling up almost the whole universe and subsequently creating problems for reach other's existence. As a result though Riumsi and Riumdo weres brothers, there ensured a bitter relation between the two for want of space for their respective existence. Riumching, being eldest of the three brothers got perplexed with the alarming situation posed by his brothers. After a great deal of thought and deliberation Riumching decided to refer the problem to Dirichiji for a solution. Accordingly, the matter was referred to Dorichiji, the spiritual Head (God) of wisdom and knowledge. After taking stock of the situation Dorichiji advised that Riumsi and Riumsi and Riumdo should be separated for better. He advised and instructed that Riumsi should remain on the lower side as the land for all the living things and Riumdo should settle on the upper side i.e up above, as the abode of all the providential and celestial bodies including Dorichiji. Dorichiji further advised and instructed that after solemnization of ritual ceremony on the occasion of the separation, both Riumsi and Riumdo should observe a restriction of ten days ritual confinement (i.e. Iririnam or Iridonam) for maintaining compatibility and attaining self so confinement both were refrained from doing anything or moving anywhere.

In tune with the advice and instruction of Dorichiji and to effect the decision, a ritual ceremony i. e. Sichi-Nyido Kambebenam, was performed where separation of Riumsi and Riumdo was solemnized. Accordingly, Riumsi stayed in the lower side as Sichi i.e. the sky. Both were also advised to observed ten days ritual confinement, which they agreed to carry out.

On the fifth day of the prescribed restricted period while both Sichi and Nyido Kulo were observing the said ritual confinement Ichi Pinchi i. e. the bat known for his art of lying an mischief, misinformed Sichi or Riumsi that Nyido Kulo or Riumdo was not observing the said restrictions of the ritual, and so there was no reason for Sichi to observe the said holiday fully. Since Riumsi or Sichi failed to observed the prescribed ritual restriction fully he couldn't attain completely self- stability. As a result, natural calamities like landslide, earthquake, soil erosion, cracking of earth etc. occurred and so Sichi or the earth became uneven and these natural calamities take place even these days. On the other hand Riumdo or the sky fully observed the prescribed ritual restricting period and attained complete self-solidification and stability and so remain smooth and even.

After the separation, Si was created in the interior of Sichi or the earth as the Supreme spiritual authority of the earth. It is believed that Si abides at a conspicuous place in the interior or center of the earth and is responsible for the destiny of everything exists on earth.

Likewise, Donyi i.e. the sun was created in the Sky i.e. Nyido Kulo, with the highest spiritual power and as the source of energy or light for everything in the universe. Various celestial bodies including Polo i.e. the Moon and Takar i. e. the stars, were also created. Polo was created for maintaining time and season, and also to watch and determine the activities and life season, and also to watch and determine the activities and life of man at night i.e. after sun-sets and before sun-rise. Takar was created to add beauty to the sky.

Accordingly to the Tagins, Si and Donyi are the two supreme spiritual and providential authorities of this universe. They have full control over all Gods, Goddesses and other spiritual forces. Both are believed to be the sole and ultimate symbol of truth and justice. The destiny of man is controlled by them. It is believed that nothing can happened on earth and in the universe without their blessing. In a nutshell, Si-Donyi's pleasure is humanity's sorrow. Thus, it is in the light of aforesaid belief and faith that the Tagins Worship Si and Donyi festival is to invoke their blessings and celebration of Si-Donyi festival is to invoke their belongs far the general welfare of mankind and protection against all kinds of adversities, calamities and sufferings.

Regarding the origin of man or human race the Tagins believe that in the evolutionary process Situ was born of Sichi or the earth in a female human figure in semi-spirit form. From Situ two sons i.e. Tunyi and Tuki and daughter i. e. Tune were born. From Tuki originated Kibu-Riabu or Kibo-Romlo (i.e. bad spirits) and a separate lineage of various evil spirits and malevolent forces started.

Tunyi and Tune, who later on came to be known as Abo Tinyi or Abo Tani and Ane Yapi or Chene Yapi respectively, were born in complete human forms. Abo Tinyi couldn't find any normal human wife, as there was no other human female expect his own sister. Chene Yapi. So, he married females of various animals, birds etc. but no human offspring was born. Abo Tinyi wanted to produce human child but could not succeed. So he consulted Dorichiji for a solution. Dorichiji advised Abo Tinyi to taken an egg (i. e. egg of Cheri-Yashi, a hen originated from the earth) and throw it on the abdomen of his sister, Chene Yapi. Dorichiji further instructed that if the egg does break then he, could marry his own sister for better. As advised Abo Tinyi took an egg and threw it on the abdomen of Chene Yapi without her notice. The egg broke with a big bang. At this Chene Yapi got shocked and held her brother. Then and there Abo Tinyi embraced his sister and thus an instinctive urge and love for each other, as natural to opposite sexes of animals, developed between the two. Thereafter, both Abo Tinyi and Chene Yapi gave birth to sons and daughters one after another and thus the human race started on this earth, and so Abo Tinyi is called the father of all the human races.

As a matter of fact, the Tagins have been observing and performing Si-Donyi Owee dates back to the period when the human race started to begin on the earth. Although, the level of extent of performance was continued to individual home, village, clan and sub-clan, the Si-Donyi Owee has been celebrated in the form of community festival since 1975. Henceforth, Si-Donyi festival is celebrate on community basis, which intact is mass worship of Si¬Donyi invoking their blessings for the ail around welfare of mankind.


The mythology says that out of Sichi Ane Situ was born. From Situ two sonfs were born one as Tuni (i.e. Abo Tani) who was the first man and the other was Tuki from whom Kibo and Riabo (Bad spirits) were born.

From Abo Tani various races and clans were born which are brief as follows:-

1. Nido- (Dodum-Dole-Mipe, Puli, Laya, Pate, Pade)

2. Niko-Kome (i.e. people inhabiting the northern and hilly areas) Kopak (i. e. people inhabiting the southern and plan regions).

3. Kono (Hesse Clan)

4. Nine (Apatani)

5. Nyinyu-Nyidam (Minyong-Padam)

6. Nito-Tope (Topo)

7 Tuni (Nikar-Nagum) Karga & Kara. Bogum Bokar

8. Tuni- (Nibe - Bere - Rekak - Kagni - Kaktor) Tani- Tator etc.


According to the mythology Sipo Ane (i.e. Mother Goddesses was on earth at the time of separation of the earth and the sky and in the course of time as a result of Opo Kite Dele Robnam (i.e. pregnancy and procreation by wish) various Gods and Goddesses or deities were born to Sipo or Opo Ane.



MoEF asked to buckle up and award clearances

Itanagar, Jan 4: Ministry of Environment and Forest has once again come under the scanner for causing inordinate delays in according environmental and forest clearances for a host of projects, with capacities ranging from as high as 3,000 MW for the Dibang Multipurpose HEP to as little as 120 MW for the Nafra HEP.

In case of projects, such as Nafra, where the environmental clearance (EC) has already been obtained, and parameters relating to environmental impact, such as dam height, reservoir level, affected area remain constant but the estimated power generation has changed due to technical reasons, the MoEF has been asked to take a more liberal view and not ask for additional Terms of Reference (ToR) nor refer the matter to the Environment Advisory Committee (EAC) again.

However, it has been suggested that the request for such minor changes could be considered in MoEF internally for approval. Moreover, MoEF should not insist on submission of proposal for Forest Clearance because at the stage of ToR, the design and layout are not firmed up.

Currently, the MoEF is looking at 13 projects which have not been accorded either clearance on account of an external issue. In case of Nyamjungchhu HEP, the proposal for forest clearance is likely to be placed before the Forest Advisory Committee (FAC) in its next meeting.

While the ECs could be granted in most of the 13 projects, as per the supreme court order, the FC could not be accorded along the lines of the order because the proposals for FC are yet to be firmed up. With respect to Subansiri and Lohit basins, there is a strong likelihood that the cumulative impact assessment could get delayed due to unavailability of data. The projects would, therefore, be approved with a validity period, during which the cumulative impact assessment would have to be completed.

In this regard, the power secretary has recommended that the state government identify a competent agency to conduct these studies.

Uma Shankar has also suggested that a short term study be conducted before the cumulative impact assessment studies.

Meanwhile, with the muck disposal programme for each project in the state hitting major roadblocks on account of repeated delays in accordance of clearances by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), the MoEF has been summoned to award conditional approval, with a stipulation that the state government furnish the muck disposal plan within 6 months of approval of the projects and before work begins at site.

In addition to this, MoEF has been asked to stipulate the conditions for muck disposal and empower the Principal Chief Conservator of Forests (PCCF) to monitor its implementation. These demands have come at the heels of the developers expressing their woes on their inability to firm up any muck disposal plan due to delay in award of contracts. (Courtesy www.energylineindia.com )


Indiscriminate quarrying at Siang bank


PASIGHAT, Jan 4: Unscientific quarrying of boulder and gravel from Raneghat bridge point at the left bank of Siang river is a cause of concern for the local people, who are scared of aftereffects in the downstream areas.

Added to their concern is the alleged inaction of the district administration in controlling the illegal quarrying.

During the last three years the mighty Siang has changed its course and is gradually diverting its course towards left bank, posing threat to existence of the lower part of Mebo sub-division.

The Sinung Gumin Nature’s Foundation (SGNF), a local NGO dedicated to the protection of environment in a written statement alleged that indiscriminate quarrying of sand and gravel is posing a threat to the people living in downstream areas.

“Mining of sand gravel from left bank of Raneghat point and adjoining stretches including Siku-Siang confluence (Podum Aak) is affecting the normal flow of the mighty Siang river and it is posing a great threat to the villages located at downstream areas. We have submitted complaint petition to the East Siang Deputy Commissioner (DC) during the last week of November, demanding to stop the illegal and unscientific quarrying at this portion but the authority has not taken any effective step so far,” said Obang Apum, the chairman of SGNF.

Apum alleged that the illegal practice has been rampant for the last three years but the authority has not initiated any action against the illegal traders despite repeated approaches.

It is said that sediments deposited on the left bank of the Siang river at Raneghat bridge point and Siku Siang confluence (Podum Aak) are acting as natural barriers to protect the downstream village. But due to continuous mining of the sand gravel, the Siang has changed its course and taking its turn towards its left side, which may hit Sigar, Ralling, Mottum, Kiyit, Borguli, Seram, Kongkul, Namsing, Gadum and Mer that falls under Mebo sub-division. The flood wave caused by Siang river may also inundate the Dying Ering wildlife sanctuary.

The East Siang Deputy Commissioner Talem Tapok, when contacted said that he was looking into the matter and has ordered to enquire the matter besides issuing a ban notice against the illegal quarries.

The DC said that report is yet to be submitted.


Don’t harass the common Arunachalees: AITF

ITANAGAR, Jan 4: While reacting to economic blockade imposed by organizations led by KMSS, Arunachal Indigenous Tribes Forum (AITF) requested the organizations in Assam not to take harsh steps against the common public of Arunachal Pradesh as it would bring severe socio-economic hardship to the innocent common public thereby destroying the age old neighborhood relationship and peaceful co-existence among the peace loving people of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh.  

This call came today after a meeting here today to discuss the economic blockade announced by some Assam based NGOs and students unions.

However, the it is matter of great relief that the total economic blockade against Arunachal Pradesh has been withdrawn, the meeting opined.  “AITF feels that common public of the Arunachal Pradesh has nothing to do with any hydro power projects of Arunachal Pradesh in particular and the powers projects in North East in general and hence the common public of Arunachal Pradesh should not suffer any harassment from any anti-dam protesters,” an AITF release stated. “In democratic country like India, people have the right to ventilate their resentment through non-violent democratic means of protest but such protest must not harass the innocent public for no fault on their parts,” the meeting chaired by AITF president Bengia Tolum noted.  

Such economic blockade will result in acute shortage of consumable goods and life savings medicines which will result in severe price rise in Arunachal Pradesh. It has been also apprehended that such economic blockade would result in public suffering which may result in social and communal tension among the peace loving people of both the sisterly states, it further stated.


Science wonders of coming days

"Science, my lad, is made up of mistakes, but they are mistakes which it is useful to make, because they lead little by little to the truth."

Jules Verne


Professor Chandan Tilak  Bhunia

Science has made us to believe that today’s science fictions are tomorrow’s realities.  Believe it or not a few wonderful dreams the human society are going get in hand in coming days. Thanks to science; thanks to technology. In this article a few science wonders that are going to be realities with coming technologies are noted.


Way back in 1979, the great visionary Dr Arthur C Clarke wrote a novel “The Fountains of Paradise” on a space elevator. Like the elevator you use in air port to move up and down, like the one such you often use in modern multistoried super market, space elevator is to make you move between space and earth, earth and moon, earth and mars, mars and moon. Think of enjoying it your kids in summer or winter vacation. The thought of such fascinating whisking between space and planets was dreamt more than a century ago by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, a Russian scientist. Making of a space elevator is a simple idea. An orbiting satellite and the earth will be connected by a cable in carrying vehicle up and down. The technological challenge is to design very rugged cable of huge length. If the satellite is geo stationary, the cable length will be twice the orbit height that is 36,000 km approximately. The cable will be strong not only to carry vehicles up and down but to carry its own weight also. In 1991 carbon nano tubes were discovered. Carbon nano tubes are tiny molecular –scale threads of carbon atoms. It is believed that these tubes are suitable to design the space shuttle cable. But the amount of nano tubes required to design a cable thread is not readily available, neither so technically so easy to design. The ruggedness required for space cable is much higher than that is available with so far produced nano tubes. Problem is not just of getting suitable cable thread. How to power the lift? Bettery power is out of question because of time required to carry the lift. Carrying fuel or battery on vehicle will tremendously increase the load that the cable may not sustain. Then comes how to manage the space debris left over when launched over years. These technical problems need solutions before a successful take off. The dream is now however taking a shape towards reality. In fact, two projects are already taken up to implement space elevator. These are LiftPort and x-Tech projects. The project cost may be well around US$10 billion. To encourage the projects, the US space agency, NASA has announced an annual competition with a prize fund of US$ 400,000. It is expected that the project may get a shape around 2015-20.


In space with the space elevator project, the IPN (Inter Planetary Internet) project is accelerating. Dr Vint Cerf, co creator of today’s Internet thought of an idea of inter networking communication between earth and mars, earth and moon and so on.  About a decade ago peoples were skeptical about today’s Internet, and today Internet is one of the life bloods.  Down to ten years time, the society is to see another revolution in network communication. Internet with which we work and send mails, connects different networks existing over the earth. IPN project is to realize a network of disconnected Internets each over the earth, over the mars, over the moon etc. Internet over a planet will be connected to Internet on another planet via gateways. The satellites may be used as gateways to store and forward data, message from one user of one planet to another user of another planet. In order to realize IPN, many hitherto undone technical challenges scientists and engineers face. Inter planets distance is very long. This will cause huge delay in communication. As of today when we talk over telephone to US from India we  notice delay. This is due to satellite long distance link. This sort of delay is tolerable. But inter planet delay will be much more and may be even a few minutes. Think of downloading a file. We call for a file, the file is searched and respective server downloads the file. If start of downloading takes minutes and hours, it may not be suitable communication, neither any way near to real time communication. The long distance communication is inherently associated with errors in communication. IPN downloading using current Internet technology may not be possible without error. Downloading an erroneous file is of course meaningless. Major problem relates to hardware failures in satellites gateways or in computers and servers in the remote planets or the intra communication links of particular planet. How to repair it? It is not only cost but also infeasible all time to attend for repairing by technical persons from earth. One time installation from persons from earth is acceptable. It seems as of today lots of research is required to make the project feasible. A solution to hardware repairing problem has been thought of. The engineers are working on the model of redundant based hardware system for planets’ networks. In fact, IPN realization requires a new set of architecture and protocol. IPN study group is aiming a near term solutions to the problems.  The primary goal of study of the current IPN group is to investigate how terrestrial Internet protocols and architectures be extended in exploring deep space networking.  NASA has a IPN project of which Dr Cerf is an important technical member. This group is targeting for a liaison communication between satellites and space communities. In his own word Dr Cerf’s association with the IPN project is a impact on future. He said: “ It’s so much fun to be part of all this…You feel as though you are having some impact on future generations when you are involved in this kind of thing.” Since its origin in 1960s, Internet has growing and changing. This is a natural evolution. But we have studied” Sky is the limit”. What is the next natural evolution then?



Yes, there is. Have you heard of Computer based on quantum mechanics! IPN(Inter Planetary  Network) project may end up designing with today’s’ classical computers. But days are not far away when we have to work with quantum computers. Our Internet and IPN if comes by that time may have to then got redesigned with quantum computers. Really?  What is that? You must have heard about quantum physics. The classical laws of physics are usually applies to macro bodies like earth, moon or 1 kg of mass. The tiny particles or bodies like atoms, electrons, protons and photons follow quantum mechanics. They are governed by laws of quantum physics. The classical computers on which we currently work follow Boolean mathematics. The two logic states of Boolean algebra are 0 and 1. These two are basic bit processing unit of current computers. Whatever you write, A, B or 56 etc are converted into a string of 0s and 1s before being processed by the computer and/or transferred over computer network. In classical computer, these two states are represented by two states of transistor: ON and OFF. In the quantum physics similar two states are known as qubit 0 or qubit 1. Qubit means quantum bits and may be defined by two spins of photons for example. Thus tinny particle instead of macro transistor may be used to represent the two bit processing element of computer. Computer that will use qubit for doing its job is known as quantum computers. Lots of progress and research in the area of quantum computing, quantum gates, quantum information processing, quantum tele transportation and quantum cryptography have been done in the reputed research laboratories world over if the proceedings of the two research schools namely School on Quantum Computing and School of Nano devices recently conducted in the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Italy are to be believed. There has been a great deal of interest and research in quantum computation. Such interest and research got momentum due to several important advantages of quantum computing. Quantum computing minimizes the heat dissipation which stands as a main hurdle in miniaturization of classical circuits and computers.  In fact theoretically quantum computer is loss less device as it operates on reversible function unlike classical computers. Reversible function has equal number of inputs and outputs, and their relations are one to one and onto. This is not the case of classical computers that use irreversible functions. In the irreversible function, outputs are less than inputs. This results in the sources of heat dissipation and information loss. Reversible functions guarantee the information loss less computation in quantum computer. Nearly more that 50 years of using classical computers, the theory of quantum computing has been a promising field of development possibly because of its powerful features and different architecture. Quantum computers will be ultra fast, ultra thin but high performance computer because of using tiny qubit in place of macro bit.  The qubits can exist in superposition states. A qubit can be in state 0 and in state 1 simultaneously. In classical physics when you toss with a coin, either you get a head or a tail. In quantum physics, the result of toss is a mix of heads and tails. In fact when you are in the level of individual particles, nothing is absolute unlike absolutely in transistor ON and OFF. There electrons may be spinning in one way and the other way but they could exist in mixture of spins. This superposition nature of qubits makes the quantum computing to perform massive concurrent and parallel operations. A collection of qubits could represent a large array of numbers simultaneously. With sufficient supply of qubits, a quantum computer can outplace classical counterpart by many orders of magnitude. A 30 qubit quantum computer may operate at 10 teraflops (trillions of floating point operations per second). Classical computer of 30 bits may operate maximum a few millions flops. A classical computer may take billions of year to factor a 400 digit number. A quantum computer can do the job in a year. Computers are made of gates. Classical computers are made of primary irreversible gates, namely AND, OR and NOT secondary gates, XOR and universal gates of NAND or NOR. In quantum computers reversible gates will be used. Many researchers have reported design of reversible gates like Fynmann, Toffoli and Fedkin gates. In labs of MIT, IBM and other reputed universities, quantum computing has been developed by this time at low scale of few qubits array. These developments if convey any information then it is nothing but the fact that quantum computer is coming undoubtedly.

Quantum cryptography is a very promising application of quantum information transportation. Sending message secure over channel is the subject of cryptology. It is in fact a subject of war between code making and code breaking. Users send coded message so that unauthorized eavesdropper can not get the access of message, Eavesdropper tries to break the code to get the message. In conventional way of coding a key is used between a transmitter and a receiver. With the key the transmitter encrypts the message to be transmitted. The receiver uses the same key to decipher the encrypted message. Problem remains how to distribute the key. Because if the key is lost to eavesdropper, the coding breaks. In the classical methods some solutions for key distribution exist. One such solution is public keying technique. But all these solutions are based on some mathematical assumptions that are unproven. In famous RSA public key system, the assumption is that it is difficult to break the product of two large prime numbers to get back the original prime numbers. In fact previously mentioned massive power of quantum computer itself may be a big threat to such assumption based techniques. After all, quantum computer may do the job of breaking unbreakable codes in no time. Here as rescuer come the quantum physics itself.  Quantum cryptography does not rely on any unproven mathematical assumption. The subject of quantum cryptography basically was developed to solve the problem of key distribution. It was developed on application of laws of quantum physics in the subject. The basic property of a quantum state is that qubit’s no property can be measured without disturbing its any other properties. This is due to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Using this property it was experimentally shown by a group of researchers under Bennett that quantum key distribution may solve the basic key distribution problem of cryptography under a protocol B84. The active research in the quantum cryptography has made many protocols for quantum key distribution: Ekert protocol, B92 protocol, six state protocol and QKD (Quantum Key Distribution) protocols with higher dimensional quantum states. Ekert protocol aims to provide secret random key to users using entanglement property of qubits. B92 protocol aims to provide secret key to the users using two non orthogonal quantum states. The six states protocol proposes to use six non orthogonal quantum states to provide secret key to the users. The higher dimensional QKD protocol proposes to use  dimensional non orthogonal quantum states to provide secret key. It is believed that as number of non orthogonal states increases the level of security confidence will increase.

The credit of initiating quantum computation is due to Paul Benioff. He theorized of creating a quantum Turing machine in 1981. Today’s computers are each a Turing machine manipulating bits, 0s and 1s. Benioff’s idea was subsequently pushed by Nobel laureate Richard Feynman. The leaps and bounds growth of classical computers in unprecedented way is understood to follow the famous empirical Moore’s laws. As per this law: the number of components on an integrated circuits (ICs make classical computers) would double every year (this is the original Moore’s law predicted in 1965 for the then next ten years), and the doubling of circuit complexity on an IC every 18 months (this is known as revised Moore’s law), and the processing power of computer will double every year and a half (Moore’s second law). With application of current technology and due to physical limitation of heat dissipation problem, Moore’s law is likely to be saturated soon. A survey predicts that Moore’s law beyond 2015 does not look promising. It is thus expected that quantum computers will be classical computers’ natural legacy to provide future solutions for high density chip based, high speed and high power computing. In one expert’s opinion: “ Experimental and theoretical research in quantum computation is now attracting increasing attention from both academic researchers and industry worldwide. The idea that nature can be controlled and manipulated at the quantum level is a powerful stimus to the imagination of physicists and engineers. There is almost daily progress in developing ever more promising technologies for realizing quantum computation and new quantum algorithms with various advantages over their classical counterparts. There is potential here for truly revolutionary innovation.”   

“No, you’re not going to be able to understand it. . . . You see, my physics students don’t understand it either. That is because I don’t understand it. Nobody does. ... The theory of quantum electrodynamics describes Nature as absurd from the point of view of common sense. And it agrees fully with an experiment. So I hope that you can accept Nature as She is -- absurd.”  Richard Feynman


1. Arthur C Clarke, The Challenge of the Spaceship, 1960

2. Arthur C Clarke, A space Odyssey, 1968-2001

3. Arthur C Clarke, Myterious World, 1980

4. Scott Burleigh et al, Interplanetary Internet, 53rd Int’l Astronautical Congress, The World Space Congress’2002, Texas, pp 1-9

5. Toby Howard, The Interplanetary Internet, http://www.cs.man.ac.uk

6. Kelvin Fall, Thoughts on the Current IPN Architecture Proposal, Intel Research Document, 2001, Berkeley, CA

(The writer is Director, National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh)


Hydro projects, politicians and people

Dear Editor,

The dramas in Shakespeare’s World Stage unfolding across the twin state of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh because of upcoming mega hydro projects especially 2000 MW Lower Subansiri Hydro Electric Project at Gerukamukh are the results of our collective superficial planning and disastrous pursuits by the central government, state governments of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh in the name of development. When the Geological body in the world has classified Arunachal Pradesh under Zone V with the highest seismic activity in the Seismic Zone Map of India; when the Environmentalist across the globe has already warned of potent danger behind construction of mega dams in the geologically fragile part of the world; when the imminent threat to the security, safety and livelihood of the dam affected people are unheard & unaddressed and their consent not obtained for construction of the mega dams in their lands, with what constitutional, legal, scientific and moral authority should the governments of a democratic country impose such injustices upon the citizens. In a democratic country like ours any developmental pursuit by the government is supposed to benefit the citizens because the motive of the development is for the people, by the people and to the people. If then, why is it so that that the central government and state governments of the day are so callous and indifferent towards the utmost genuine concerns of the people of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh and stubborn to impose these mega hydro bombs upon us?

By mesmerizing and befooling their innocent citizens with the songs and slogans of democracy, the rogue governments are cogently laying the death traps & mega hydro-bombs for millions and millions of North Eastern People just because the people in the mainland India without facing any threat can enjoy the hydro power generation! And it is not just the potential threat issues, the rich lands and agricultural fields of the poor and powerless masses are being forcefully snatched away by the governments through arbitrary implementation of pre-colonial and arbitrary law called as the Land Acquisition Act’ 1894. And provisions of the said law has nothing good for poor and powerless land owners but loosing and complete loosing of land and livelihood and journey to misery and wretchedness. The North Eastern Region is geologically very fragile and seismologic ally highly active. If the destruction caused by the Assam Earthquake of 1950’s read in books has become just academic activity to evoke any emotion, then the disaster caused by the Sikkim earthquake of 2011 we watched in television was frightening one, I suppose. And major disasters makes us spellbound also, but have not we seen small stream like Gai Nadi near Silapather also wreaks havoc by marooning scores of human lives and disrupting road communication for months together? And these past disasters just prove the extreme vulnerability of our region to imminent disasters. And the construction of mega dams in the region is perfectly risky and extremely prone to disasters like dam breakage, etc. The central government and state governments are irrationally crazy about 50,000 MW and adamant to push these mega dams upon us in spite of grave imminent threats. But why should the central government pursue to entertain the people of mainland India through power generation in these mega dams by hanging swords of imminent disasters over the head of millions and millions of North Eastern People especially Assamese and Arunachalee people? If we are made Indians then, why we are not being treated like Indians and exploited just the way colonial Britishers did to Indians?

The callousness and indifference of our very own politically elected leaders running the government at Dispur and Itanagar to the sentiments and sufferings of their own people are utterly unbecoming, disgraceful and betraying.

And more over, the Accountant & Auditor General has reported that the upfront monies collected by the government of Arunachal Pradesh are spent in unaccountable manner and which indicated possible misuse of the thousands crores of rupees. There also, a CBI investigation should be ordered to probe the alleged misuse of public money accumulated by driving poor and powerless Arunachalees to landlessness and wretchedness.

The clarification of the Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh on the issue of road and economic blockade by numerous organizations along NH 52 at Assam in protest against construction of 2000MW Lower Subansiri Hydro Electric Project by NHPC at Gerukamukh that the people of Arunachal Pradesh are innocent is illogical and baseless. Scientifically and rightly, numerous organizations in Assam over the years have been raising concerns on the potential threat to their people by mega dams in upstream Arunachal Pradesh. The government of Arunachal Pradesh, the people of Arunachal Pradesh has been aware of the concerns of the Assamese brethren. Now, why should the politically elected leaders of our state should feign innocence to the plight of people of Assam and Arunachal? After all, these are the elite clique who has been playing with the sentiments of the dam affected people within the state itself.

The statements issued by our own MP Mr Takam Sanjoy that the anti-dam organizations in Assam and Arunachal Pradesh are funded by China deserved censure in the strongest possible terms. The vociferousness by the MP indicated his intellectual, political and developmental backwardness and hollowness. The vociferous Mr Sanjoy was never to be found uttering even a single word in the Parliament on numerous issues of national importance like Corruption & LOKPAL, PDS, NGREGA, Inflation and Price Rise, etc that adversely affects people of the state equally. But he choose to exaggerate an issue of utmost importance by making wild and unfounded allegations against his own subjugated and suffering people of North East India, which he should have been rather taking up with the central government.

If the people of Arunachal Pradesh in the upstream are callous and indifferent to the bonafide and serious concerns of our Assamese brethren downstream against the mega dams, then the economic blockade proposed by the numerous organizations of Assamese brethren against people of Arunachal Pradesh are logical and meritorious. We don’t live in compartmentalized water tight steel tanks. Assam and Arunachal are close neighbors and we will continue to do so for infinity. The mega dams in upstream Arunachal pose serious threat to the people of Assam down stream and to us also. Now it is imperative upon the people of Arunachal to support the cause of Assamese brethren and to fight tooth and nail against building of all mega dams in our land and not just the Lower Subansiri Hydro Electric Project. At their sufferings we cannot enjoy, at threat to their life and livelihood we cannot sit silent. The mainland Indians may be indifferent to them, callous towards their concerns. But, an Assamese and an Arunachalee must fight together at the times of distress and live together and share the bounties of development and prosperity.

The central and state governments should seriously reconsider and scrap all the mega dams in Arunachal Pradesh and instead go for micro and mini hydro projects so that power potential in the state is tapped without drastically affecting the ecological balance of the region and at the same time minimizing the threats and destruction to human settlements. And this way the development of the state and the region can be optimized in the long run to get the desired and best benefits.


Philo Aako,




18 hours is too long

Dear Editor,

I want to make a sincere request to the Arunachal Pradesh Public Service Commission to extend the date for General Studies Paper. Many of the candidates are going to write exams on Jan 7th and 8th and it is not possible for us to write exam without break. I feel that even our hand will not move properly if we write for 18 hours in three days. Please understand us.


A candidate



Do something about potholes

Dear Editor,

It is to draw the attention of Chief Engineer (Highways), Bora Ete. He is a very efficient officer and, therefore, we believe he will direct his officers to attend to small repair works to be done at Papu Nallah bridge point, near Shiv Mandir, at Bank tinali, D-sector, secretariat point, Rajiv bhawan, VCS point, Chandranagar point ( near college area) to name a few. These pot holes are there for more than a year, always prone to causing accident. Next monsoon is nearing.

Please do something about it !


Tony, Itanagar






All email and surface mails must be accompanied with contact numbers and full postal address. Do keep writing but please make sure that letters are short and to the point.        



Sunderban and climate change


Impact of climate change is worse on the Indian Sunderban, one of the most biodiversity-rich habitats in the world, due to lack of development policies for the region.  

A new study by Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) says that what is now becoming apparent is that the impacts of climate change have all the more worsened because of official apathy and complete lack of development planning in this region.

The statistics are revealing: Sea surface temperature (SST) in the Sundarbans is increasing at the rate of 0.5OC per decade; globally, the rate is 0.060C per decade. Higher SST is leading to sea level rise and adverse impact on the fish stocks.

Sea level is rising in this region at a rate higher than the global average. In the past 25 years, sea level has risen at a rate of 8 mm/year – more than double the global average. This is leading to land loss as well as increasing soil salinity. The Indian part of Sundarbans has been losing land at 5.5 sq km/year over the past 10 years.

The frequency of severe cyclone in the region has increased by 26 per cent over the past century.

These natural calamities and changes are playing havoc with the people’s lives, but what is worsening the situation is the ‘development deficit’ in the region. The reports find that the Sundarbans has remained largely neglected and isolated over the years, and ‘development’ has passed it by.

On one hand, the region is experiencing rapid increases in population, while on the other it is witnessing extreme mismanagement of its fragile and limited land resources, leading to lower agricultural productivity and growing disenchantment of the rural poor. A rising sea level has been eroding and eating away the land, while sea water ingress has been leading to high salinity, laying waste vast tracts of land.



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