January 03


News Impact

Cash reward stands

ITANAGAR, Jan 02: The cash reward of Rs 2 lakh announced by the Arunachal Pradesh Police for giving information or clue leading to arrest of the assailant/s of Tongam Rina, Associate Editor of The Arunachal Times still stands. The identity of the informer/s will be kept secret.  The informer/s may contact Capital SP at tele. numbers : 09436040006


Blood donation camp

ITANAGAR, Dec 02: Muskan Welfare Society (MWS) led by its Chairperson, Anupama Singh, First Lady of the State in collaboration with Department of Health and Family Welfare, Arunachal Pradesh State AIDS Control Society and Ramakrishna Mission Hospital, Itanagar is organizing a Voluntary Blood Donation Camp at Raj Bhawan on January 5.

MWS Member Secretary Tumken Angu, PTO, Assistant Director Agri- Census informed that MWS had organized such a camp in the past where a large number of people participated. In addition to it, Muskan Welfare Society had in the past successfully organized a Statewide Breast Cancer Awareness campaign, a statewide plantation and cleanliness drive under Clean and Green Initiative in the State and several other programmes.  PRO to Raj Bhawan


Shifting of loyalty

ITANAGAR, Jan 02: Former MLA Nikh Kamin along with all his supporters from 16th Yachuli Assembly Constituency has joined People’s Party of Arunachal (PPA), claimed an PPA release.

While joining the party Kamin has expressed his full faith on the ideology of the regional party.


Org reiterates demand

ITANAGAR, Jan 02: Reiterating its earlier demand to stop the ongoing construction of convention hall at IG Park Arunachal Pradesh Abo Tani Clans Youth Organization (APATCYO) today renewed its opposition against the construction of convention hall. Organization has claimed that coming up of numerous infrastructures is serious threat to existence of IG Park. Organization also blamed the forest and land management departments for their alleged lackadaisical attitudes for not taking any initiative to dissuade the construction.


Senior citizen’s death mourned

ITANAGAR, Jan 02:  Tarh Welfare Society and Tayeng Abu Charitable Society have mourned  the death of  Tarh Taig, a senior citizen of the society who died on 30th Dec at Nyoing Village under Yangte Circle in Kurung Kumey district. Late Taig was more than hundreds years, he is survived by two wives, three daughters and a son and many grand children.


Surveyor’s death mourned

PASIGHAT, Jan 02:  Surveyor Oyem Moyong breathed his last at the age of 50 in General Hospital, Pasighat after prolonged illness on 31st December.

Born on 01/01/1963, late Moyong started his career as Modal on 01/01/1983 and later in the year 1994 promoted to Supervisor (Kanungo) and presently he was serving as Surveyor under LRSO, Pasighat. He is survived by his wife only.

The officers and officials of DC’ establishment deeply mourned the premature demise of Moyong and conveyed heartfelt condolence to the members of the bereaved family.

Meanwhile the Anbo welfare society, Pasighat expressed shock over the sudden death and stated that Late Moyong was a good human being and would be remembered for his immense contributions to the society. DIPRO


Training on IDSP

ITANAGAR, Jan 02: Sensitization training on Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) for medical officers and health workers of various health institutes of East Kameng district was organised by the district surveillance unit (DSU) at the District Hospital, Seppa on December 28 and 29.

During the training, various topics, such as importance of timely submission of the weekly data, effective response to disease outbreaks etc. were discussed.

Dr. K. Gyadi, District Surveillance Officer and Ili Angu, District Epidemiologist were present as resource persons.


Richo inaugurates Hija View Point

Ziro, Jan 02: Parliamentary Secretary Padi Richo inaugurated the “ Hija-View-Cum Supung Katu,” a potential tourist hot-spot located at the highest point of Hija village. One can have a birds view of the major seven villages viz. Hari, Hong, Bulla, Hija, Dutta, Mudang-Tage and Bamin –Michi.

The view point itself is built on the top of a traditionally improved Apatani model house designed by P.Tupe with an objective of prevention and protection from fire accidents which is a major cause of concern for the people of the Ziro Valley. Deputy Commsioner Taru Talo, ZPM Hija, PRI members of Hija and HoDs of Lower Subansiri District were present on the occasion. DIPRO





171 days have passed. The culprits involved in the July 15 attack on The Arunachal Times associate editor Tongam Rina are still at large. 

Protesters demand justice for women

Itanagar, Jan 02: Hundreds of people including women and students organized a women dignity (Nari Samman Bachchao) rally from Nirjuli to Doimukh on January 1 in protest against the growing number of violence against women throughout the country including Arunachal Pradesh. The rally was organized by BJP 14th Doimukh  and led by Ngurang Pinch, ex MLA and BJYM Mandal president Nanu Kinu. The participants in the rally registered their protest against recent brutal gang rape in New Dalhi and increased number of crimes and sexual assaults on women.  While demanding justice and equal treatment to all women, they further  took pledges to work for the  security and protection of women in the Society. State BJP General Secretary Organizational in-charge, Tai Tagak also attended the rally.

It is worth mentioning here that the BJP has been demanding a special session of Parliament to discuss on assault on women but Government ruled it out saying the Justice Verma Committee was going into the issue of rewriting laws and time is needed.

Leader of Opposition in Lok Sabha Sushma Swaraj said she had asked Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to immediately call for a special Parliament session to examine the existing laws regarding rape as there is no scope of giving death penalty in such cases.

On its part, Government said a special session will make sense after it receives the report of the three-member committee, headed by Justice J S Verma, former Chief Justice of India.

“Let us first get the report and then we can examine when the session of Parliament should be," Finance Minister P Chidambaram told reporters at New Delhi.

At Pasighat, hundreds of people including  women, young and old came out on streets on Monday evening to register their protest against  crime on women and to pay homage to 23 years old  brave Delhi gang rape victim who was cremated at New Delhi on Sunday morning.  Later they   also organized a candlelight vigil in front of statue of Father of the Nation at Gandhi chowk to pay homage and expressed their solidarity with the victim of Delhi gang rape and her family.

Demanding security and protection for women they also  boycotted New Year celebration.

Among others, RK Mishra (DC) along with his wife and daughter, local leader Kaling Moyong, students from college and various schools, govt. officers, businessmen and general public paid their tribute  Delhi gang rape victim. The President, Women Welfare Society, Pasighat, Aini Taloh said it was a shame that women are coming out on streets to get their basic rights.  An atmosphere must be created where women feel secured in every part of the country, she said. (Reports H K Roy)



Uphold secular fabric of country, promote peaceful co-existence:Tuki

ITANAGAR, Jan 02: “India is a secular democracy and we as its worthy citizens should uphold it in any cost,” exhorted Chief Minister Nabam Tuki.

He was speaking to a mammoth gathering after laying the foundation stone of Nyishi Indigenous Cultural Centre at Six Mile near Mithun Gate here yesterday.

While discouraging any kind of discrimination in the name of caste, creed, colour and religion, Tuki emphasized on the need to promote peaceful co-existence of diverse tribes, communities and religion of the state.

“Arunachal Pradesh is blessed with 25 major tribes and more than 100 sub-tribes with different traditions, customs following different faiths and it is our duty and responsibility to respect every tradition, custom and faith with outmost dignity,” the CM said.

Tuki called upon the people to maintain and preserve the rich age-old culture and tradition of the state and asked the younger generation especially to emulate it.

While appreciating the endeavor of Nyishi Indigenous Cultural Society for promotion and preservation of the rich cultural heritage, Tuki said that it was a noble initiative in right time in the backdrop of extensive inclination of the young generation to the western culture.

The chief minister appealed all sections of the society to promote and focus on education sectors in order to make Arunachal Pradesh a cent percent literate state.

Concerned over increasing unionism and bandh culture, the chief minister called upon the youths to channelize their energy into positive and constructive direction. He dwelt upon some of the landmark policies of his government for employment generation and skill development.

He categorically appealed the parents to guide their wards by instilling discipline, respect and hard work attitude in order to pave way for them to become good and worthy citizens.

“I appeal all my fellow citizens to lend their cooperation and support in making Arunachal Pradesh especially the capital city a crime free zone”, Tuki emphatically said. Adding further he said “government is doing all out effort to deliver a clean, green and people friendly governance to the people but this could only be achieved when the common denizens extend their support and cooperation to the government”.  Speaking on the occasion, Nyishi Elite Society President Bengia Tolum requested the government to formulate Religion and Culture Policy in order to preserve and protect the diverse culture and religion practices in the state.

“Culture and faith cannot be separated as faith is the sole binding factor for culture”, Tolum said while advocating his plea.

Among others President of Indigenous Faith & Cultural Society, Y D Thongchi, Tony Koyu, Dr. Joram Begi and Montu Mossang of Tangsa Welfare Society also spoke on the occasion.

Earlier, Taba Hare, President Nyishi Indigenous Culture Society in his welcome address highlighted on some of the core issues of the society which required to be given importance. He spoke on youth’s role, promotion of indigenous dialect, preservation of custom and tradition and protection of environment and wildlife.

The Society later submitted a memorandum requesting for fund for construction of Nyishi Indigenous Cultural Centre building to which the chief minister assured to provide necessary support.



Indigenous Faith Day celebrated

AALO, Jan 02: Various tribes of the state residing at Aalo township, including school children congregated at Donyi Polo Dere with traditional attires and thronged the streets with slogan, “culture is tree, faith is the soil upon which it grows; upon that tree one’s identity blooms” to celebrate the Indigenous Faith Day on December 31.

Attending the observation, Geyum Padu, EE PWD Daporijo, exhorted the believers of Donyi Polo faith to propagate our religion and culture to maintain our age-old identity. Our faith knows no segregation and help us to be part of any religion in the world, he said.

Tumpak Ete, Swamiji from R.K. Mission, EAC Tumge Loya and others spoke on the concepts of Donyi Polo on the occasion.

Earlier, Pakjum Ete President Donyi Polo Trust Committee spelt out the main objective behind observing the Day annually and extended his thanks to one and all for the cooperation. The prizes for best dressed individual and sectors were also given on the day and all tribes also presented traditional dances on the occasion. DIPRO



AWA demands recruitment of meritorious sports persons

ITANAGAR, Jan 02: Arunachal Weightlifting Association (AWA) has demanded the police department for immediate recruitment of meritorious sports persons, who have brought laurels to the state.

Expressing concern over delay in publishing advertisement for recruitment of meritorious sportspersons in Police Department, AWA in a release said that though several advertisements for recruitment of Constable and Police officers under general quota have been published, no advertisement has been given for recruitment of reserved posts for meritorious sports persons during that period.

Lauding the present Government led by Chief Minister Nabam Tuki for according top priority to sports sector and welfare of sportspersons, AWA urged the Police department to follow the necessary directives of the government. Late recruitment would also hamper them from getting early promotion, it said. It also urged the Government to follow states like Punjab, Haryana, Manipur etc., which recognized many meritorious sportspersons by way of offering Gov job, cash incentives and naming road-street after their names etc.



ICAR team inspects farmers’ potato field

ITANAGAR, Jan 02: A team comprising A. Kirankumar Singh, SMS (Agronomy) and Jitendra Kumar, Scientist (Soil Physics) visited the farmers’ potato field at Gori-I, Gori-II and Gori-III covered under the TSP Programme of the ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Basar today.

The team monitored the growth stages of the crop and evaluated the field conditions as well. The team advised them to grow the crop with proper irrigation and drainage as per the requirement of the crop. Barring some moisture deficiency in some fields, which require immediate light irrigation, no symptoms of insect infestation and disease were noticed in their fields.

The team noticed the problem of Red Ant in one farmer’s field for which the team advocated for the controlling measures at the earliest. Most of the fields were found satisfactory to the team members.



People demand decentralization of Disaster Relief fund

Prafulla Kaman

PASIGHAT, Jan 02: Eminent citizen of East-Arunachal districts including the functionaries of Eastern Arunachal Peoples’ Welfare Organization (EAPWO) have demanded the state government for decentralization of fund released under State Disaster Response Fund (SDRF) and take up restoration and rehabilitation measures on the basis of quantum of damages.

The people feel that state government should take step for decentralization of SDRF and other financial allotment in district-wise manner. As such, ‘Flood damage restoration fund’ should be rationally shared in the affected districts through ‘District Execution Committee’ rather than transferring to the head of the departments concerned. People alleged that state government has been centralizing all SDRF in state level and lion’s share of the fund meant for relief and rehabilitation is clandestinely allotted to some West- Arunachal districts, which there was no major disastrous damage recorded.

“The state forwards report of loss and damage caused by flood to the centre after compiling the reports received from the affected districts. As such, the people of East Siang, Dibang Valley, Lower Dibang Valley, Lohit and Anjaw districts are witnessed major flood damages for the last some years, but it is observed that lion’s share of the SDRF is given to other districts thereby depriving the people of worse affected districts”, lamented Ogam Mengu, the chairman of EAPWO.

The EAPWO, with its HO at Pasighat has been demanding the state government for creation of two Head of officers in each department and shifting of the office for eastern zone to a suitable place within the East-Arunachal districts. We are demanding the government for equal sharing of Grant- in-aid and any special fund/package enunciated by the central government. The development fund released under different heads should be earmarked under a separate and ‘Independent Sub-Head’ within the state budget in accordance with guidelines laid down by the state government from time to time, it demanded in a representation submitted to Chief Minister Nabam Tuki.

It is worth mentioning that the late flood had left a trail of devastation by eroding river banks, flood control dykes, irrigation systems and collapsed crop fields and other plantations besides damaging rural roads. The people of worse affected East-Arunachal districts have alleged that there was no proper relief and rehabilitation measures despite the authorities are being informed of the situation. Moreover, the authority is yet to take up repairing measures.

According to reports, the devastating flood in East Siang caused heavy losses of Rs 14.12 crore in Water Resource department while there was an estimated loss of Rs 7.5 crore in Agriculture and allied sector. The PWD (Highway) department alone has estimated Rs 5 crore for renovation works. The total restructuring cost estimated in the district is about Rs 54 crore.

State government sources said that the Centre has approved an amount of Rs 156.88 crore to Arunachal Pradesh against proposals for flood management schemes submitted by the state government.

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Greenhouse gases on the rise

The amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere reached a new record high in 2011, according to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Between 1990 and 2011 there was a 30 per cent increase in radiative forcing - the warming effect on our climate - because of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other heat-trapping long-lived gases.

Since the start of the industrial era in 1750, about 375 billion tonnes of carbon have been released into the atmosphere as CO2, primarily from fossil fuel combustion, according to WMO's 2011 Greenhouse Gas Bulletin, which had a special focus on the carbon cycle.  About half of this carbon dioxide remains in the atmosphere, with the rest being absorbed by the oceans and terrestrial biosphere.

The role of carbon sinks is pivotal in the overall carbon equation. If the extra CO2 emitted is stored in reservoirs such as the deep oceans, it could be trapped for hundreds or even thousands of years. By contrast, new forests retain carbon for a much shorter time span.

CO2 is the most important of the long-lived greenhouse gases - so named because they trap radiation within the Earth's atmosphere causing it to warm. Human activities, such as fossil fuel burning and land use change are the main sources of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The other main long-lived greenhouse gases are methane and nitrous oxide. Increasing concentrations of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are drivers of climate change.

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Annual Greenhouse Gas Index, quoted in the bulletin, shows that from 1990 to 2011, radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases increased by 30 per cent, with CO2 accounting for about 80 per cent of this increase. Total radiative forcing of all long-lived greenhouse gases was the CO2 equivalent of 473 parts per million in 2011.


The Si-Donyi mythology

Dr.Gyamnya Baki Garam

The SI-DONYI, the main religious festivals of the Tagin Community is celebrated from 4th to 6th January every year with grandeur and religious fervor. This is the time when the Tagin people flock together to celebrate and pray to the Almighty Sun and mother earth for the wellbeing of the mankind as a whole. Nature worshipping in various forms of deities and spirits forms the basis of the religious belief of the community. The SI-DONYI festival signifies this belief. Various religious prayers and ceremonies are conducted by offering anima in the belief of getting blessings and protection from various deities and to ward off evil spirits during the festival. The Tagins believe that the all-pervading SI-DONYI is the supreme authority of the existence of life.

The SI-DONYI is celebrated every year since time immemorial. At the early period it was performed at family or in clan level but slowly it was turned into a community festival for the welfare of all the human being exists on this mother earth under the lights of Almighty Sun God. The term Si-Donyi does not necessarily mean the physical form of the Sun and the Earth but the power behind the unending source of energy from the physical Sun and the power to generate and continue the complexity of life on this earth. The mythology of this religious festival as in the case of most of the tribal belief carries no written record. Nevertheless, the belief, faith, cultural fabric and the philosophy of life of the Tagin community has been expressed in this religious festival and handed down from generation to generation through folklore hymns and oral myths. The mythology propounded and maintained by priests from generation to generation forms the main source of philosophical and spiritual knowledge and historical record of the community.

The Tagin Mythology tells us that, out of the nothingness and the emptiness of the universe two forms called KORIUM and KULU came into being. And out of the KORIUM-KOLU, RIUMCHIJERING, RIUMSI AND RIUMDO were born. RIUMCHIJERING the eldest of the three was endowed with the highest degree of wisdom and knowledge. RIUMSI and RIUMDO were very tiny at the time of creation. Within days of creation, the other two i.e. RIUMSI and RIUMDO began expanding rapidly creating crisis for space. Riumchijering who was to create this universe was greatly alarmed, as space was needed to accommodate various deities, spirits and other celestial and terrestrial elements. After a great deal of thought and deliberation, Riumchijering evolved a solution wherein RIUMSI and RIUMDO were to be separated. The separation of two was effected through a ritual ceremony known as “SECHING-NYIDO KAMBE BENAM”. This rituals ceremony was performed to maintain peace, harmony and compatibility and stability between the two. The ritual ceremony imposed both RIUMSI and RIUMDO to observe 10 days of religious restriction in which both had to remain in virtual confinement and total inactivity known as “ARV RVNAM”. In the process of separation ATU-PINCHI , the Bat, known for his art of lying and mischief emerged out from CHECHAP-DOCHAP (the cleavage between the Riumsi and Riumdo.)

On the 5th day of the restriction imposed, ATU-PINCHI, the Bat instigated RIUMSI, that RIUMDO was not observing the religious restriction and as such it would be a mockery for RIUMDO to observe the  same. On hearing this, RIUMSI felt cheated and ceased to observe the restriction forthwith whereas RIUMDO in fact was observing the restriction religiously. In ceasing to observe the restriction imposed, RIUMSI violated and defied the religious piousness of the ritual restriction thereby incurring wrath of Riumchijering. As a result of the cursed RIUMSI underwent tremendous turbulence within, in the form of terrible cyclonic eruptions and gigantic floods taking the shape of mountains, valleys and rivers to become undulated. Hence, RIUMSI became SECHING the Earth; RIUMDO on the other hand dutifully observed the restriction and attained peace and stability thus becoming the vast and peaceful “NYIDO - KOLO” the Sky. So the concept of formation of earth and sky goes in the mythology of Tagin community. So too the myth goes that the physical phenomena like ‘DOOGUM’ (the thunder), ‘DOORIAK’ (the lightning), ‘BOOBI’ (the earthquake) would not have come into existence but for the breach of the restriction by RIUMSI.

With the formation of SECHING, the needs for light, water and a measure of time arose, which are the basic ingredients required for the life forms to begin. So “KURIUM and KULU” created ‘DONYI’ the sun, ‘POLO’ the moon and ‘HAI’ the sea. DONYI, the sun spread light, ‘POLO’ the moon gave a means to measure time and ‘‘HAI’’ the sea provided water to the world of life form that was to take shape on ‘SECHING. So the stars were created as daughters of “NYIDO – KOLO”, the sky, to decorate the settings.

After creating atmosphere conducive for life forms to take shape, RIUMCHIJERING adopted himself into two forms – SECHING CHERICHIJING & NYIDO DORICHIJING respectively, which were to reside and preside over SECHING - NYIDO domain respectively. CHERICHIJING and DORICHIJING in unison created ‘SI’ a male spiritual form and implanted in SECHING  to control the drama of life that was to take place on ‘SECHING ‘the earth’. SI’ became ATU- SI (Grandfather)) being a male spiritual form. ATU - SI is believed to be residing in DACHI-LAPPI a mythical place in the interior of SECHING. From the lap of ATU - SI, ‘DOJING’ (the god land and forest), BURU(the god water)were formed. Out of the SHOULDER of ATU–SI, ‘POOTE YULLO (’the god of prosperity), ’KIBU-LIBU’ (the god of well being), PANE-MANE’(the god of wealth) were formed and the  ‘DIRI-ANE’ (the god of food grains), ‘NIKUM-BIDU’ (the god of spiritual knowledge) etc were formed out of the bosom of “ ATU - SI”. Along with these positive spiritual deities, the equal numbers of negative deities like MOJI-YAPOM,PURU-SORU, NYEEPO etc were also evolved out from below the hip of ‘ATU - SI’ that caused mysterious and unexplained events. In the process of physical division of SECHING NIDO domain, ATU-SI’ the spiritual form of ‘SECHING’ divided into three parts, each part for each deity to reside and preside over. The DUMPUM (head) portion was earmarked for “DOJING (the land deity), the GARA-LAPPA (middle portion) for the human race to reside, and that of lower portion for the evil spirits. To demarcate and maintain the boundary of each part, DORICHIJING (the god of wisdom) created the ‘SI-MORO’ as the judge and head of the judicial authority to preside over when the need for justice arose.

AYU DONYI and ATU-SI are supreme spiritual authorities and powers complementary to one another. AYU DONYI is believed to be residing in ‘NIKUM LAPPI’ or NIKUM PVKI, a spiritual place in NYIDO KOLO. According to the Tagin mythology, AYU DONYI determines the character, longevity, personality and progress of the human beings. AYU DONYI created other deities such as NYIKI DONYI, NYILI DONYI, NYIMAR DONYI, NYIOGIO DONYI, and NYIRIAM DONYI & NYITER DONYI within itself. It is believed that a successful person with balanced personality is controlled by NYIKI DONYI, that of arrogant, dangerous and dreadful by NYIOGIO DONYI and NYILI DONYI. Those controlled by NYIRIAM DONYI are extroverts. Those controlled by NYIMAR DONYI are the introverts and those controlled by NYITER DONYI lack the power of procreation. Apart from determining the diverse human character, AYU DONYI is also believed to sow the seeds of various domestic animals and birds in different places like DONYI SUBU(mithun) in DOCHIN TARU and PISA DOCHO, BINTU(Goat) in DEKAR PEMAR, TACHI (pigs) in GUMCHI, TABI (hens) in PEKI etc. The valuable ornaments like beads, bangles (TASING- TADOK, SERI - BOKRI and RUPU – RADA etc) and household items like JUKCHI - TAKCHI, OPUM- OJOK etc are all believed to be endowed to human beings by AYU DONYI. Hence, AYU DONYI governs the growth, character, prosperity and the course of human life. And so goes the saying ‘DONYI’S LIGHT IS OUR GUIDE’ in TAGIN MYTHOLOGY.

To launch the drama and cycle of the life into action, ATU-SI, created a female form called CHETUNG. CHETUNG in turn procreated three human forms, two male - the TUNGNI and the TUNGKI and a female called TUNGNE. TUNGNI, the eldest consorted with various other life forms to fulfill the desire to continue the human generation but no offspring in human form was forthcoming. Exhausted with his attempts and adventures to produce off spring of its own kind, TUNGNI, finally approached DORICHEJING (the God of the ultimate knowledge and decision making for a solution). DORICHEJING provided an answer to TUNGNI’S dilemma and suggested him to throw an egg on TUNGNE’S abdomen. If the egg did not break, no further steps were to be taken and accordingly, the continuation of human race was to be doomed. If the egg broke, the consequent step would dictate the continuation of the human race. TUNGNI carried out the action with sudden precision without the knowledge of TUNGNE. TUNGNE, surprised and shocked at the bang of the broken egg being thrown at her abdomen, jumped and embraced TUNGNI. Instinctively with this embrace aroused the sexual urge and desire for love. Thereafter, both began their life as husband and wife. Thus began the human race with TUNGNI as ABU (father) and TUNGNE as ANE (Mother). With the advent of the time in the quagmire of the life cycle on this earth, TUNGNI, the ABU emerged as ABUTANYI and TUNGNE emerged as ANE YAPV as the ancestor of mankind. On the other hand, TUNGKI, the younger brother without a female partner began a separate lineage of evil race known as KIBU-RIABU or KIBBO – ROMLO to counter and punish the irresponsible action of human beings so as to maintain the equilibrium of flow of life cycle.