July 17


Press fraternity gives Govt 7-day to nab journo’s assailant[s]

ITANAGAR, Jul 16: The  Arunachal Press Club (APC) and Arunachal Pradesh Union of Working Journalist (APUWJ) in a two-hour-long meeting in the Club premises today held a threadbare discussion on brutal attack on Arunachal Time’s Associate Editor Tongam Rina by a gunman at 6.15 pm Sunday which left the Press fraternity shocked and baffled.

The Press fraternity vociferously objected to unabated attacks on media-persons without any action whatsoever by the law enforcing agencies and the court. The attack on Tongam is nothing but a daredevil act taking advantage of the lawlessness even in the State Capital,  both APC and APUWJ said.

Condemning in no uncertain term, the inhuman attack on scribe who is contributing her might like other journalists, the meeting construed it as an attack on the entire Press fraternity.

The Press fraternity unanimously adopted resolutions demanding that the attacker/s in Tongam Rina case should be booked under non-bailable section within 7 days and the case be fast-tracked through a special court to award exemplary punishment or else the case should be handed over to CBI forthwith.

The  members unanimously resolved to shutdown  media-houses on July 17 and boycott of all the news and advertisements of the state govt for 15-days as a token of protest, which will be reviewed if the culprit/s is/are arrested or not arrested within the period.   

In another resolution, the house resolved that all the pending cases relating to attacks on media and media-persons should be re-opened and handed over to an IPS ranked officer to charge-sheet all the cases on a time-bound manner and forwarded to 1st class magistrate, as announced by the government on April 15 last, to specifically try such cases within three months.

A delegation will be sent to New Delhi/ Guwahati to  stage protest and highlight the repeated atrocities being committed on the Press fraternity while the government remains a silent spectator giving only lip service, the house resolved.   

 The media fraternity further resolved that the management of all media-houses should provide security within three days in the Press establishment for the security of the working staff and hi-definition CCTV cameras should be installed forthwith for security reason.

All the management/ publishers have consented to stand behind the cause of the media fraternity. However, if any journalist is victimised, all working journalist of that media-house will resign en-masse. Both the organisations will stand by their decision and support their cause.


Appeal from parents of Tongam Rina

Kento Rina, father of Tongam Rina, has thanked the people of Arunachal Pradesh for showing utmost love and care and extending all help and support to her injured daughter in the hours of need.

Kento, who is Lohit DDSE, said that, “She has shown sign of recovery and that is really encouraging for all of us.”

 “My daughter, who even loves to feed stray dogs and ants, can never harm anyone and, therefore, this incident has left us shell-shocked. This kind of cowardly act is against our tribal culture and deserves condemnation from all quarters,” he said.

He appealed to all sections to not attach any communal colour to such inhumane and barbaric attack. The need of the hour is to give justice to the Tongam and for that every Arunachalee should come out irrespective of caste, creed, colour and region to stand united for the greater cause of the journalists, who have been giving selfless service for the all-round development of this land-locked backward state, Kento added.



Attack condemned

ITANAGAR, Jul 16: The brutal attack on Associate Editor of The Arunachal Times Tongam Rina was widely condemned by almost all sections of the society as well as bringing international condemnation.

Tongam was fired upon by an unknown miscreant when she was about to enter her office. She was rushed to the nearby R K Mission Hospital by her colleagues, where she was operated upon by a team of state’s leading surgeons. The bullet is removed and she is recuperating in the hospital at the moment.

While expressing shock and dismay over the brutal gunfire on Tongam, the Indian Federation of Working Journalists (IFWJ) vehemently condemned the attack and expressed solidarity with the journalists of Arunachal Pradesh.

In a statement to the media, IFWJ Secretary General Parmanand Pandey said that it would take up the case with Union Home Minister and Press Council of India.

He said that it was most reprehensible and cowardice act on the part of the assailants to target the journalist, who are only messengers and render yeoman’s service to the people of the state.

IFWJ has demanded that besides beefing up the security at all media houses, individual journalists must also be given adequate protection in view of the growing onslaughts on them.

“Attacks on the media are not new in the Northeastern state of Arunachal Pradesh. Three months ago the office of the Arunachal Times was vandalized by a group of ten intruders. One-and-a-half years ago, two women reporters, Appu Gapak and Nyapi Bomjen were attacked by the local police in Itanagar while on an assignment. Despite strong evidence and a case being registered, the guilty have not been punished,” South Asia Women in Media (SAWM) said while strongly condemning the attack on Tongam, who also is a member of SAWM.

“As a regional organization representing women journalists from the SAARC countries, SAWM is disturbed by the increasingly dangerous climate in which media professionals function in South Asia and is especially concerned about the poor security of women journalists”. It adds its voice to those of other independent media collectives to strongly urge the State and Central Governments to ensure the safety of working women journalists in the Northeast and bring those guilty of acts of violence, assault and intimidation to justice urgently.

“We hope that she makes a complete recovery. Our thoughts are with her during these difficult days,” SAWM added.

The National Federation of Newspaper Employees has strongly condemned the attack on Tongam.

In a statement issued on Monday by Nava Thakuria, zonal secretary of NFNE argued that the media persons remain vulnerable in Arunachal after Assam. Thakuria urged the State Chief Minister Nabam Tuki to take stern action against the miscreants such that the journalists can function in a fearless situation.

The NFNE extended its support to the Arunachal Pradesh Union of Working Journalists and the Arunachal Press Club for their protest programme against the attack on the activist.

SI Foundation for Media and Social Welfare, Asom strongly condemned the attack on Tongam and urged the miscreants to refrain themselves from such attack on media---which is believed to be the fourth pillar of democracy. Further, govt should initiate proper steps to make feel the media persons secured. We also appeal the public to protest such inhuman act, Director in Chief Nabajyoti Dutta and Secretary in Chief Ananta Kumar Nath of the Foundation said.

The Governor of Arunachal Pradesh JJ Singh has expressed deep anguish and pain on the attack on Tongam.

Terming it as an act of cowardice, the Governor has vehemently condemned the attack on freedom of media and expressed it as totally unacceptable. He said that media is the strength of our democratic society and every member of the society should denounce such deplorable acts.

Conveying his concern to Chief Minister, Governor said that people’s confidence should be strengthened. Those involved in this shameful act should be arrested as soon as possible and made to face the law of the land.

The Governor has appealed to the people to maintain peace and harmony.

While expressing his sympathy to the family of Tongam and the Editor in-Chief of The Arunachal Times, Singh conveyed good wishes for her early recovery.

Expressing grief and anger over the dastardly attack on the associate editor of the daily, Chief Minister Nabam Tuki condemned it in harshest terms saying ‘attack on media is attack on the people and therefore an attack on the government’. He made it crystal clear to the law enforcing officials that no matter what the person responsible for pulling the trigger on the journalist has to be arrested and punished.

“The criminal – whatever be his or her identity – has to be arrested and arrested immediately,” he asserted.

The Chief Minister also directed the Chief Secretary to sound red-alert in and around the state capital complex and launch an extensive manhunt to nab the culprit.

A case has been registered in the Itanagar Police Station and a non-bailable arrest warrant issued against the unknown gunman.

The CM early this morning convened a high level meeting to assess the situation and set up the mode for a serious and thorough investigation into the incident.

The Chief Minister assured the media fraternity that their freedom of expression would be ensured at any cost and appealed them to cooperate with the government in the investigations. While praying for speedy recovery of Tongam, he said that the government will bear all the expenses of her treatment.

He also appealed to the people to remain calm and not to give the incident a political colour.

“A criminal is a criminal….without any religion, tribe or community. The law won’t spare him or her at any cost,” Tuki said adding that this was a challenge that has to be faced and overcome collectively.

The Chief Minister, who had rushed to the R K Mission Hospital last evening immediately after the incident to take first-hand information of Tongam’s condition and coordinate with the medical authorities, is continuously monitoring her recovery. An official of the CMO has been deputed in the hospital to oversee her treatment.

While condemning the attack, the Arunachal Pradesh State Commission for Women (APSCW) requested the law enforcing agency to immediately nab the culprit.

Looking at the rising graph of crimes against the women, the Commission called upon the Govt. to form Special Investigation Team to speed up the investigation concerning atrocities committed against women. The Commission called upon the Govt. to provide security to the media fraternity.

Yesterday,  a team of the Arunachal Pradesh State Commission for Women led by chairperson Gumri Ringu and a team of the Galo Welfare Society led by its president Jarjum Ete expressed shock over the incident and demanded that the gunman be arrested at the earliest.

Condemning the unsavour attack on an armless journalist as dastardly,  Arunachal Chamber of Commerce and Industry president Techi Lala and general secretary Tarh Nachaung, Arunachal Pradesh Citizens’ Right Chairman Taring Mama, Arunachal Christian Forum president Khyoda Apik and general secretary Toko Teki, Arunachal Olympic Association president Padi Richo and Secretary General G Doke on behalf of the sports fraternity of the state, All Arunachal Pradesh Students’ Union (AAPSU) president Takam Tatung, vice president Nabam Tamar, Arunachal Weightlifting Association president Abraham K Techi, have appealed to all sections of the society to raise their univocal voice against repeated attacks on the media persons.

Everything could be resolved across the table and violence was no solution to any problem, they said, adding they none should try to attach any colour to the incident as a crime and criminal have no affiliation. The assailant/s should be brought to book immediately and award exemplary punishment so as to restore confidence in the minds of the Press fraternity.

“We pray for early recovery of Tongam so that she could resume her duty with full strength and renewed vigour,” the organizations said in separate statements.

In the meantime, AAPSU urged the administration to give priority in maintaining law and order and create an atmosphere of peace and bring back a feeling of security among its citizens. The apex students’ body of the state also reiterated its earlier demand to give protection to the journalists in the state.

Galo Indigenous Faith and Cultural Council (GIFCC) and Indigenous Faith and Cultural Society of Arunachal Pradesh (IFCSAP have also vehemently condemned the attack on Tongam.

“Attack on media person is sign of danger to the democracy. The state government should take serious and necessary step to arrest the persons involved in the incident immediately,” GIFCC said. It flayed the district administration, particularly police administration and state government for failing to safeguard the life and property of its citizens.

IFCSAP blamed the Home Department for repeated attack on media persons in the state and appealed to the government, specially Department of Home to take immediate necessary action to bring the culprit(s) to book and protect the journalists from such attack in future.

“A criminal has  no community, caste or religion. The need of the hour is to stand together against such criminal(s) who left no stone unturned to malign the image of society,” Adi Students Union said in a release. While vehemently condemning  the attack on the woman journalist, AdiSU demanded the authority to apprehend the culprit(s) at the earliest and award them exemplary punishment.

“We demand government of Arunachal Pradesh and law enforcing authority to arrest the culprit(s) and punish them as per the law.  No one should protect the criminal(s), ANSU said in  a release and appealed everyone to extend help to the law enforcing authority in arresting the culprits.

“We also demand GoAP to provide life time security to Tongam as her life is in danger while serving as journalist in Arunachal Pradesh,” ANSU said and expressed its solidarity with the Press fraternity in its fight for justice.

“Crimes at Capital of Arunachal Pradesh has reached its zenith and has become breeding ground for criminals under the safe umbrella of the state politician,” All Papum Pare District Students Union (APPDSU) said.

APPDSU demanded the State Government to immediately issue look out notice against the unidentified gunman with reward for the informer. Further, the union demanded the Government to reopen all pending cases against the culprits involved in attack on media houses and media persons of the state earlier.

The union prayed for early recovery of Tongam and her good health.

“This type of uncouth act is uncalled for in a democratic society and we should never encourage this type of boorish act especially in our state. Every one should come out unitedly and raise voice against this type of crude and barbaric act on a woman  journalist,” said All Lower Subansiri Students’ Union (ALSSU) convenor Tanya Agu in a release.

“Time has come to have a regular and full fledged Home Minister in the state to properly maintain the deteriorated law and order situation in the state, the release said and strongly demanded for appointment of a separate Home Minister at the earliest .

While condemning the dastardly act, ALSSU appealed to the authority concerned to bring the culprit(s) to book at the earliest and award them exemplary punishment.

The East Siang district unit of Adi Baane Kebang, on behalf of the people of the district vehemently condemned the barbaric act done to Tongam, one of the most affluent, fearless young journalist of the state. The people of the state must equivocally condemn such heinous crime that too in a daylight attack by firearms.

Saying that the incident has sent a wrong signal, the ABK unit said that the twin capital city of Arunachal is no more a safe place to live where extortion, intimidation, torture have become order of the day.

The ABK unit demanded immediate arrest of the culprit(s) and give them stringent punishment so that such heinous crime is not recur to any individual in future.

The members of Arunachal Indigenous Tribes Forum (AITF) condemned the cowardice act of firing at the lady journalist and strongly urged the Police department to apprehend and book the culprit (s) immediately.

“Firing at an unarmed lady from back side is an inhuman and cowardly act which deserves condemnation in the strongest terms from all sections of the society. Nobody has the right to take law into their hand and terrorize the peace loving fellow citizens,” AITF chairman Bengia Tolum said in a release. The Forum appealed to all, specially the residents of the capital complex to maintain peace and help the police department in identifying and apprehending the culprit (s).

The members of AITF also strongly appealed the State Govt. and Home department to beef up the security apparatus and intelligent networks in the capital complex for the safety and security of life and properties of citizens. The Forum further suggested the Home department to explore the viability of installation of surveillance gadgets like CCTV cameras in phase-wise manner in the strategic points of capital complex to help in containing law and order situation.

All the AITF members prayed to  almighty for early recovery of Tongam so that she could resume here service to our people through her journalistic career.

Tebw Lappa Welfare Society has also condemned barbaric attack on Tongam and called for CBI enquiry into the case. The Society said capital police has failed to solve any case in the last couple of years, specially incident related to attack on media due to which the people has lost faith on capital police. The Society called on people to wake up and stop being a mute spectator to such violence.

Condemnations in no uncertain terms against the brutal attack are pouring in from all section of the society, including from Lok Sabha member Ninong Ering, All Bogong Students’ Union, Arunachal Law Students’ Union, All Arunachal Pradesh Workers’ Union and the Adi Bane Kebang.

BJP national general secretary Tapir Gao also vehemently condemned the incident and sought strong action against the gunman.

The Nyishi Elite Society termed the attack an attempt to destabilize the one of the most important pillar of the democracy. While condemning the attack NES asked the state government to arrest the culprit at the earliest.

Meanwhile, the Nyishi Elite Society prayed almighty Donyi Polo for immediate recovery of  Tongam.

Repeated attack on media won’t be tolerated, said Itanagar MLA Techi Kaso while vehemently condemning the insane and barbaric attack on the senior journalist.

Taking serious note of the firing incident, the MLA requested the law enforcing authorities to expedite the investigation process and arrest the culprit (s) at the earliest.

Stressing the need of protecting the media as fourth estate of democracy, he appealed the people to remain calm and pray for speedy recovery of the young journalist.

Vehemently condemning the brutal attack on Tongam, Arunachal Pradesh Congress Committee (APCC) said the attack on woman journalist is not only a cowardice act but also an interference in the functioning of the Fourth Estate.

APCC appealed to the state Govt to give exemplary punishment  to the culprit (s) and also appealed all citizens to cooperate with investigating agencies in tracing the culprits.

All Arunachal Pradesh Anti-Corruption Activist Association (AAPACAA) demanded CBI enquiry into the brutal attack on the journalist.  

Criticizing the state Govt for the  firing incident, the Association further demanded  to appoint full time Home Minister at  the earliest to tackle law and order  situation in the staste. Non-fulfillment of the demand would compel the association to launch democratic movement, it threatened.

Expressing grave concern over the repeated attack on media persons, Arunachal Pradesh Abo-Tam Clans Youth Organization demanded immediate action against the culprits involved in attack on senior journalist Tongam.   

While condemning the barbaric incident, the  organization said that  despite repeated attack on media persons,  the state Govt is not  capable to provide security to all the Media houses of the state.  It demanded appointment of permanent home minister to tackle law and order problems.

Confederation of Service Association of Arunachal Pradesh (CoSAAP) strongly condemned the barbaric attack on the journalist and urged the Govt.  and capital administration to arrest the culprits immediately  and punish them as per law.

The Kargu Kardi Students' Union (KKSU) strongly condemned the brutal attack on the senior journalist of this daily and demanded the Home Department to immediately arrest the culprit.

Reminding the contributions of Tongam  as a journalist, the Union said, instead of rewarding and honoring her with gold medal for tireless work, she has been rewarded with a bullet,” the union lamented.

The Hirik-Hiru Students Union, Kamba demanded immediate arrest of the culprit(s) for stringent punishment.

Terming the attack as barbaric, the Union said that the state Capital is no more a safe place for common man to live.

All Nyishi Youth Association (ANYA) condemned the brutal attack on senior journalist and urged the administration to apprehend the culprit (s) at the earliest.  

Arunachal Pradesh Scheduled Tribes Students Union (APSTSU) urged the Govt to provide security to all the media persons and media houses.

Strongly condemning the brutal attack on Tongam, All Arunachal Pradesh Youth Welfare Association demanded  CBI enquiry in to the attack case. It further criticized the state Govt, particularly for the prevailing law and order situation in the state.  

The ASSET, the Apnes and girls students of KGBV, Wakro prayed for early recovered of Tongam.

Press releases condemning the brutal attack on the senior journalist this daily are also pouring in from various, political parties, organizations, associations and NGOs, including Arunachal RTI Activists Forum, Arunachal Pradesh College Forum, All Arunachal Pradesh Border Students’ Union, Arunachal Pradesh Doctors Association, Dibang Adi Youth Association, Contemporary Communiqué Club, All India Trinamool Congress, Arunachal Pradesh, Arunachal Students Union Delhi (ASUD), All Arunachal Pradesh Motor Transport Workers Union (AAPMTWU), All Arunachal Pradesh Public Transport Federation and  Bharatiya Jana Yuva Morcha.

All the organizations/associations and NGOs have demanded immediate arrest of the culprits involved in the attack and award them exemplary punishment.

Copyright © 2008, The Arunachal Times Publications Pvt. Ltd., Siang House, Sector - E, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh - 791111, India

All rights reserved.


News Impact

GPF stages protest march

ITANAGAR, Jul 16:  More than 500 volunteers and well-wishers under the banner of Galo People’s Federation (GPF) today organized a peaceful democratic protest march from I G Park to Chief Minister’s bungalow in protest against the attempt on the life of Arunachal Times Associate Editor Tongam Rina.

The Federation strongly condemned the barbaric and cowardice attack on the senior journalist. It has decided to continue its movement and organize a peaceful protest march from Mopin Solung ground, Itanagar to Raj Bhawan tomorrow (July 17).



Toppers facilitated

ITANAGAR, Jul 16: In its endeavor to encourage the younger generation in their pursuit of academic career the Murh-Hatey Academic Development Society (MADS) of Bamang clan felicitated the Class XII toppers Bamang Siro (Sc), Bamang Talar (Arts), Bamang Yakey (Com) and Bamang Kane (class X) for securing highest marks among the brethren of Bamang clan in CBSE Examination 2011-12 in a function organized here yesterday.

The  Society chairman Er. Bamang Tadh while giving away the Academic Excellence Award for the year 2011-12 to the toppers with cash and certificate, he stressed on the importance of education and urged them to do better result in future to serve the society in particular and state as a whole. The cash award was sponsored by Bamang Bagang, a  senior citizen as a token of encouragement. The function was attended by its Chief Patron Bamang Mangha, Patron Bamang Felix,  MLA 19-Nyapin and senior members of the society.

A Shamed Democracy

Dear Editor,

Thomas Hobbes once said “Sovereignty may be resisted by man if it fails to provide security to him”.  Sovereignty here means State, the government - the Tuki-led Congress government.  Do we have anything in the name of security? I think no. Where is the security when shooting takes place in the heart of the city, aiming at a young lady? The incident did not happen at night.

Theoretically speaking, citizens could resist the government but how and by whom. The government is busy in its own way, besides being all-powerful. Some ministers are busy regularizing the illegally encroached public land; some are struggling to come out of allegations of illegal appointments and corruption while some are busy fighting election related court cases. So, whom do we approach for justice and fair play?

Public would be eager to have the reaction of Gen. J.J. Singh, the Governor of Arunachal Pradesh, who is constitutionally mandated with special power to maintain law and order in the State-with or without consultation with the Council of Ministers. Many understand that Raj Bhawan is the ultimate hope for securing life and liberty of the individuals in the State. Otherwise, the case may be referred to the President of India.

Is Arunachal Pradesh coming closer to, what Miss Tongam use to say, “God forsaken land”?


Nani Bath

Rajiv Gandhi University,




Mother’s Home needs cooperation

Dear Editor,

Tailyang Shanti, the mother of the Mother’s Home, Ziro has rendering yeoman services for the destitute and mentally challeged persons. She extended her mission in state capital by adopting three mentally challenged women of the capital recently, who made the NH 52 roadside of their home earlier.  

An NGO headed by Tailyang Shanti has determined to adopt those persons who are the most neglected and isolated by the family or the society. What Ata Shanti is doing is not less important than any other social services.

Sometimes, leaders, officers, businessmen and shopkeepers donate huge amount even for a petty organization. I feel the Mother’s Home is the genuine and deserving organization to be cooperated by all for good cause of the society.  


Mihin Sambyo

Niti Vihar, Itanagar



Condemnation not enough

Dear Editor,

Morning came with a shocking news that attempt was made on the life of popular columnist Togam Rina.  She is my favorite along with Mr.Taba Ajum and I am very much ardent reader to all their columns. Salute to her act of bravery in spite of repeated threatening calls. This incident is a slap to the Indian Constitution as the handful number of people has made a mockery out of it.  Simply, a condemnation is not enough, lighting a candle is not enough, the government must come forward strictly to punish the culprit and the mastermind behind it.  Strangely, the previous assaulters to the journalist are roaming freely in open air, so this time the Govt. should not fall to any political pressure, as enough finger has been raised to the present Government about its competency. Lastly, hats off to Tongam Rina for her courage.


Pawan Rai

Vivek Vihar



Take bold steps

Dear Editor,

It is sad to know that Tongam Rina, Associate Editor of the Arunachal Times has been shot at by an unidentified gunman on Sunday when she was entering her office. It is not the first time in Arunachal Pradesh that journalists and their office have been attacked.  Why the government is not taking any major steps for the safety of the journalists? Such kind of act, shows how we are uncivilized and backward. So it is appealed to the government of Arunachal Pradesh to take necessary step to book the culprits.


Chow Nakunand Singkai

Rajiv Gandhi University



It is too much

Dear Editor,

It is too much to hear the atrocities meted out to the media persons like earlier incidents. Why people do not understand the freedom of Press and the print media is only the source through which even a poor citizen can draw the attention of any defaulting department or Govt. policies. The Press is only the way by which one can write and get justice. People should understand it. Attacking media institutions and media persons are condemnable from all section of people. Whoever be the attacker of Tongam Rina, should be punished immediately. All should know that the print media and Press has never been against any particular person/persons, Association, Forum or political party and will never be biased in future. Thus, showing anguish over any topic of printed article and attacking media persons is not the solution. If any one wants to fight for any of the topic, there is the sharpest weapon ' pen' and 'paper'. It is my sincere request to fellow members to shun violent and stop attacking media persons.


Nomni Pertin

Buddha vihar Road, Margherita,



Neglected departments /Autonomous Bodies

Dear Editor,           

It looks quite odd to see important government autonomous bodies/departments like Directorate of IPR, Veterinary and Animal Husbandry, Hydro Power Cooperation , State building and other construction workers welfare board and Arunachal Pradesh electricity board  in Itanagar/Naharlagun  are functioning from congested and dilapidated buildings. The government can very well afford to provide well-furnished buildings to house these deptts. Now that we shall soon be opening the new market-cum-shopping complex in remote places like Nirjuli, therefore  a thought should be given to provide these neglected autonomous bodies /departments necessary space in this building so that the Public and staff can work in a conducive and healthy atmosphere.


N.Paku, Ex-ZPM



Less aid for middle-income nations !

Some members of the European Parliament are the latest to weigh in on whether donors should scale down their aid to middle-income countries — a contentious topic in today’s changing development landscape.

In a nonbinding resolution adopted  recently, the European Parliament’s development community urged the European Commission to negotiate a reduction of aid with middle-income countries as part of the bloc’s new development framework.

The committee did recognize that more than 70 percent of the world’s poorest people — known as the new bottom billion — live in middle-income countries and proposed direct engagement with pockets of poverty in these countries.

But ultimately, countries such as India and China that are experiencing significant economic growth should be more responsible for their own people especially if they are to continue to receive assistance, the committee argued.

To this end, the committee proposed the creation of safeguards that will ensure proper use of assistance specifically allocated for inclusive growth.

This proposal to reduce EU assistance to middle-income countries is not expected to sit well with aid groups and advocates, who argue that such a move could worsen global poverty and complicate, instead of ease, development challenges.