September 02

Jiit wins state-level science seminar

ITANAGAR, Sept 1:  Likha Jiit of Ram Krishna Sarada Mission Girl’s School, Tirap stood first in a directorate of secondary education, GoAP conducted state-level science seminar on the topic ‘Harnessing light: possibilities and challenges’ at DN College auditorium hall here on Friday.

Divya Darshan Mishra of Roopland Public School, Bomdila and Dobang Pertin of VKV Oyan, East Siang district secured the 2nd and 3rd position respectively.

Students from a total of 13 schools participated in the seminar which was attended by Director, Higher and Technical Education Tejum Padu.

While congratulating the winners Padu advised the department to conduct more such programmes to promote scientific temperament among students.   

The school’s principal Hage Takar and JDSE BN Lendo were also present.


Govt  releases its share of fund

NAHARLAGUN, Sept 1:  The State Government today released Rs 28.93 Crore as state share against various centrally sponsored schemes under Health and Education sectors. This includes Rs 2363.80 lakh under SSA, Rs 343.21 lakh under RMSA, Rs. 124 lakh under NRHM, Rs 42.75 lakh under RUSA and Rs 19.10 lakh under AYUSH.

The State Cabinet had earlier decided that state share against CSS particularly under critical sectors will be released in a time bound manner for smooth implementation of schemes.

According to a press release issued by the State Government, the issue of release of state share against other CSS is under active consideration of the government and will be released based on priority and matching release of central share.

All departments concerned have been directed to implement the schemes strictly as per guidelines and submit utilization certificates (UCs) against the funds released to enable the State Government to take up the matter with Govt. of India for release of subsequent installments. DIPR


Girl allegedly raped and murdered at Lekhapani

ITANAGAR, Sept 1: A Tangsa girl hailing from Assam was allegedly raped and murdered by unknown miscreants on August 29, last near Burma Camp, Lekhapani under Margherita police station of Tinsukia district, Assam. Police sources said that incident occurred on August 29, around 2 PM when victim was coming back from the college.  Three persons have been arrested so far by Margherita police in connection with the gruesome incident. The case has been registered and investigation is on, added police. The girl was a student of B.Com first year, Government Women College, Margherita.


Centre assures Ayurveda hospital

ITANAGAR, Sept 1: Responding to Minister Health & FW Rajesh Tacho’s representation for establishment of 50 bedded Ayurveda Medical College & Hospital at Tezu, the Centre assured to sanction the required fund as soon as LPC is granted and state government pool in Rs 2 crores in this financial year as assured.

This followed after Tacho met Union Minister of State AYUSH (Independent charge) Shripad Yasso Naik in New Delhi today to appraise him on treasure of the rich and rare medicinal plant available in the state and to safeguard them by establishing the college. He also sought support in establishing a separate Directorate for AYUSH in order to streamline AYUSH system in the state and to enhance the resource pool allocation under National AYUSH Mission to the state.  

Tacho also called on the Secretary, Department of Health Research Dr. Soumya Swaminathan and discussed early sanctioning of establishment of viral diagnostic lab under central pool, Grant of a Model Rural Health Research Unit (MRHRU) and one time seed grant of Rs. Five Crore for promotion of Health research for Arunachal Pradesh. The Secretary assured to sanction the required fund within 3 weeks for establishing the lab.

Earlier, Tacho attended the Call to Action Summit ’2015 organized jointly by the India and Govt. of Ethiopia from Aug 27-28 which saw the participation of  22 countries where a Delhi declaration was made for sharing of the global best practice and knowledge pools on ending preventable child and maternal deaths.   He was accompanied by team of officials comprising of his OSD Dr. Dubom Bagra and Nodal Officer (Ayurveda)Dr Inya Lingu.


Youths to undergo Skill Development Training at Guwahati

ITANAGAR, Sept 1:  In all 42 selected youths will undergo six-month long skill development training under health sector besides communication at Downtown University Guwahati.

They were selected through recent district level job mela-cum-skill development awareness and selection rallies.

Addressing a briefing-cum-send off programme organized by the department of Skill Development and Employment Generation (SD&EG) in Udyog Sadan here today, SD&EG director Subu Tabin along with Deputy Director (skill development) K Sarma, Assistant Director J Riba and representatives of Downtown University briefed the youths about the training and urged them to complete their training with dedication in order to find a suitable job after its completion.

The cost of the training including food and lodging, travelling cost will be borne by state government under Chief Minister’s Skill Development Mission.


INTUC meet

ITANAGAR, Sept 1:  Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) Arunachal Pradesh State unit general secretary Kenkar Yomcha has represented the state in a conference of presidents and general secretaries of Pradesh branches of INTUC held in New Delhi from 26 to 27th August 2015. All India Congress Committee President Sonia Gandhi and Dr. Sanjeeva Reddy (MP) INTUC National President were among those who attended the conference.

Amendment of Labour Law and verification of membership and anti-labour policies of the government of India were discussed during the meet.

Meanwhile, INTUC decided to  launch nation-wide strike against the  anti-labour policies of the Central Govt on Sept 2.


AACWA demands termination of MoA

ITANAGAR, Sept 1:  All Arunachal Contractors Welfare Association (AACWA), in a memorandum, has demanded the Chief Secretary to terminate the Memorandum of Agreement (MoA) with M/s Satvam (Northeast) Hydro Power Limited for non-execution of Hydropower Project at Kalaktang.

Providing a copy of the MoA entered into between the Department of Hydropower, Government of Arunachal Pradesh and the said power developer on March 28, 2008 for execution of Dengzi Hydro Electric Project of 18 mw capacity at Kalaktang, AACWA in its memorandum informed that the power developer has not yet started even the preliminary works, including DPR of the project flouting all terms and conditions.

It also said that the department had issued show-cause notices to company many times but there was no response from their side.

The association demanded reallocation of the said hydel projects to other power developers.

It also demanded reallocation of Upper Norgum HEP (9mw), Lower Norgum HEP (18mw) allotted to the same power developer and Ankaling HEP (8mw) allotted to M/s Devi Energy Private Limited to other parties.


Jurisdiction transferred

NAHARLAGUN, Sept 1: The state Government in an order has transferred the jurisdiction of Itafort Dispensary, Rajbhawan Dispensary, PTC Health Unit, Banderdewa and Urban Health Centre, Karsingsa from the Chief Medical Superintendent, Arunachal Pradesh State Hospital, Naharlagun to the jurisdiction of District Medical Officer, Yupia with effective from September one. DIPR


‘Inspect road construction work’

ITANAGAR, Sept 1:  The All Maro Baririjo Area Students’ Union (AMBASU) has expressed their resentment over the repair work carried out between Maro to Baririjo road in Upper Subansiri district and appealed the state PWD monitoring team  to inspect the work’s progress at the earliest.

The union claimed that the PWD, which has undertaken the work under SPA package II-2014-15 for a period of one year, has not been able to complete it yet, causing much hardship to the people of both circles.    


Three weeks capacity building training

ITANAGAR, Sept 1:  Three weeks long capacity building training programe on weaving clothes under Border Area Development Programe (BADP) blocks of West Kameng district concluded at Kalaktang on 29th August last.

The training was organised by Manghi Welfare Society Sangram of Kurung Kumey district sponsored by the department of Skill Development and Employment Generation government of Arunachal Pradesh.  

Speaking at the valedictory function, Tsering Pentsom, Circle Officer, Kalaktang suggested the trainees to start business at respective homes.

Block Development Officer Nani Taka stressed on the benefits of capacity building training programe saying that it makes youths skilled and ready for employment.


Mass tree plantation

ITANAGAR, Sept 1: Around 150 various tree saplings were planted in the Seppa Govt College   permanent campus by around 200 volunteers on August 29 last. The mass plantation drive was organized by the NSS unit of the College in collaboration with All East Kameng District Students Union (AEKSU) and Department of Forests, East Kameng.

Earlier, College principle Robin Hissang briefed students about the importance of the plantation and stressed on co-curriculum activities apart from formal academic learning for development of personality. Disclosing that the college will shift at its permanent campus from this academic session, he requested every stakeholder to support for growth of the college. DFO, Seppa provided the tree sampling.


News Impact

Scooter transports materials for

Government Polytechnic College

FIR against engineers

ITANAGAR, Sept 1: The construction of Government Polytechnic College at Ziro has run into controversy due to corruption charges. Scooter and Maruti Gypsy have been allegedly shown as trucks in  record for supply and transportation. A number AR-06-1089 has been entered in the  record as one of the vehicles engaged in transportation of materials.

However, responses under RTI Act have revealed that AR-06-1089 is actually a Bajaj Scooter registered with district transport officer, Ziro. Similarly two other vehicles AR-06-2010 and AR-06-1590 are Maruti Gypsy under custody of government departments but they too have been allegedly shown as truck in the  record.

One Techi Tongum, a resident of Yazali under Lower Subansiri district has lodged an FIR against four engineers of WRD, Ziro division namely L Lego (former executive engineer WRD, Ziro), Dibang Tayeng (Executive Engineer WRD, Ziro), Punyo Bamang (Asstt.Engineer, WRD Ziro-1) and PN Thakur (junior engineer, WRD, Ziro) at Hapoli police station in this regard.  In his FIR, Tongum alleged that work was carried out without inviting tender (NIT) which is gross violation of laid down norms.

“The polytechnic building has been constructed just by issuing work orders to various firms without following CPWD manual norms. Department also procured a Scorpio vehicle against the said project even though there was no provision for buying vehicle in the guidelines issued by director of higher & technical education vide order no. ED/HE/LPG-128/2009 dated 19th September 2011,” Tongum alleged in his FIR.

Further, he alleged that department issued the work order in back dates. “A work order no. ZWR/PTC-Z/WO-69 to 103/2012-13 dated 10/11/2012 was issued in back date. However, EE WRD who signed in the said work order only joined on 12th August 2013. How can a person who joines office in 2013 issues work order for year 2012. This is sheer corruption,” the complainant alleged.

Even though a case no. 43/15 under section 468/471/420/120(B) IPC has been registered against the four engineers, the complainant alleged that Ziro police is deliberately delaying investigation which is giving ample time to the alleged accused to destroy the evidence. “I appeal senior government officials especially Chief Secretary to look into the matter. Establishment of government polytechnic college at Ziro is a matter pride for the people of Lower Subansiri district. But unfortunately engineers in connivance with contractors are breaking all norms. They are seriously compromising the work quality,” Tongum alleged.



Children without mid-day meals in

Dollungmukh schools

DC, DDSE, DMO on unannounced visit

Ziro, Sept 1: Schools in Dollungmukh circle in Lower Subansiri district have not been provided with mid-day meals, according to an official source.

 A team led by Deputy Commissioner of Lower Subansiri district, Kanki Darang found that none of schools had provided mid-day meals to the children, despite their acknowledgement that ration items had already been given to them by the concerned carriage contractor.

Along with District Medical Officer, Dr.Moli Riba and Deputy Director of School Education ,Yumlam Tana and the Circle Officer of Dollungmukh, Marpe Riba, he visited Government Secondary School, Dollungmukh , Government UPS Sipu, Govt. UPS Tanio  and Govt. PS  Midpu and thoroughly inspected. He found that the teacher-in- charges were poor in maintaining their school records. Most of the Teacher-in-charges complained that the Block Education  and the Cluster Resource Coordinator do not visit their institutions regularly. They also pleaded for repair and renovation of the schools upon which the Deputy Commissioner directed the Circle Officer to prepare an estimate of fund requirements  and to submit the same  to him as soon as possible.

The Deputy Commissioner also inspected the primary Health Centres where the doctors and other medical staffs informed him of the untold hardship faced by them due to lack of quarters for accommodation of staffs.

Later, in the office chamber of the circle officer Dollungmukh, the Deputy Commissioner was briefed about the law and order related problems in the area and also about infrastructure shortfalls of the general administration. The Circle Officer pleaded for a good condition vehicle to be placed at his disposal so that his movement is not restricted. He also requested him to conduct such type of surprise inspection often so that the government servants as well as the general public are kept in vigil and a sense of duty is instilled in them. Acting on a specific complaint by the ZPM Dollungmukh that most of the staffs posted in the educational and health institutions of the locality are not present in their respective places of posting affecting public services and hampering developmental activities, the Deputy Commissioner decided to undertake the inspection without prior notice or information to anyone.



Arunachal celebrates Solung with pomp and gaiety

Take responsibility in preserving cultural heritage: Governor

ITANAGAR, Sept 1: The Solung, main agricultural festival of the Adi community was celebrated with    religious fervor and traditional gaiety in various parts of Arunachal Pradesh today.

Addressing the festive revelers at Itanagar, Governor of Arunachal Pradesh J P Rajkhowa called upon the youth of the Adi community to take responsibilities in carrying forward the rich cultural heritage of their tribe. He advised all, particularly young boys to take active part in the celebration to preserve their cultural identity, customs and traditions. The Governor also advised the people converse in their indigenous language and put on indigenous attires and take pride on it.  

“The people should modernise but should not lose touch with their roots,” the Governor added.

Citing that there is no detail records of all the 26 major and 110 sub-tribes of the state, the Governor advised the people on documentation of the language, customs and traditions, so that age-old heritage which had been handed over from generation to generation is not lost. The Governor said that tribal festivals are based on realization of gift of nature and it is an expression of their appreciation.  It helps in preservation of nature’s gifts such as the prized flora and fauna. He called upon the people of the State for a united approach for preservation of the nature.

The Governor also called upon people to put in a united effort in eradication of drugs and opium menace from the state.

Kanubari MLA Gabriel D Wangsu stressed that parents should instill basic social values of the community in their children for preserving their indigenous knowledge, language and identity. Adi community has been one of the leaders of the state and experiments and experience of the community has always enriched others, the MLA said and urged upon the members of the community to take initiative in safe-guarding the age-old cultural heritage and traditions of the state.

In his address, Mebo MLA Lombo Tayeng suggested that Itanagar Festival Committee with its large number of senior  community members must take initiative in conducting a conference on preservation and revival of indigenous language.

In his address, President of Itanagar Solung Celebration Committee Rajeev Takuk said that Solung is the embodiment of Adi way of life. It encompasses the entire gamut of Adi socio-cultural and religious life. He appealed to all the Adi brethren to work constantly to find better and healthier paths of development not only for the community but for the entire State. Tajom Taloh, Commissioner, GoAP and Secretary of the Festival Celebration Committee Nima Tondrang also spoke on the occasion.

Earlier, the Governor took part in the Taku Taabat ceremony at the festival altar and participated in Ponung dance. He also felicitated the elders of the Adi community of Itanagar who has contributed towards the society on the occasion, gave away the prizes to winners of games and sports competitions. While the  Governor released the Solung souvenir, ‘Diigok Roli’, MLA Kanubari and MLA Mebo released Adi Audio Albums ‘Yitge Do Yayi Nom’ and  ‘Gogying’ respectively.  

Apart from  presentation of colourful cultural items, a mega dance based on Adi mythology choreographed by Olen Megu Damin and folk dances by various Ponung troupes and students of Donyi Polo Vidhya Bhawan were presented.

At Naharlagun, Solung was celebrated with traditional fervor at the festival ground of Art and Culture Directorate office compound.

Speaking on the occasion, senior scientist Dr Asham Borang called upon the community members to uphold their traditional cultural heritage and endeavour to promote social and cultural values for posterity. He urged the people especially the younger generation to dedicate themselves for gaining knowledge and skill to make progress in their life besides trying to know their rig traditional heritage.

Associate Professor of Rajiv Gandhi University, Ani Taggu, who was honoured with ‘Best Social Worker’ award along with three other members, said it is essential to maintain and know one’s roots in any situation while adding we must put an efforts to maintain our trading and  culture even as we acquire modern education.

Naharlagun Solung Celebration Committee  president Angkom Paron and  general secretary Tapir Tamut also spoke on the occasion.

Earlier, Aying Perme, a renowned expert of Adi myth and culture narrated the mythology of Solung. Among others, Nanni Dai, Editor  of Echo of Arunachal attended the festival.

At Pasighat, addressing the people on the festive occasion at Solung festival ground, Nari-Koyu MLA Kento Rina fervently appealed to the people, particularly younger generation to extend cooperation in upholding the sanctity of the festival and also to maintain cordial relationship with other communities to uphold the feelings of unity and integrity.

On granting of Smart City at Pasighat, he said responsibilities are more now and we have to take decisions and plan judiciously to transform Pasighat into a real Smart City. Rina also released an Adi modern song audio album titled “Gokying” and gave away prizes and certificates to the achievers on the occasion.

Speaking on the occasion, Tabung Ering, ABK Secretary (HQ) appealed MP Ninong Ering to sanction  Rs 1 Cr from his MPLAD and  also requested MLAs of East Siang district and all other MLAs of the Adi community  of other district to contribute 10 lakhs each for construction of a Cultural Hall at Pasighat. MP Ering in his speech extended his gratitude to the state and Union Govt for considering Pasighat to be developed as Smart City. Noted writer and national award recipient Girin Tamuli also spoke on the occasion.

At Aalo, a grand competitive cultural programme was organized at Gumin Kiin on Aug 31 night to mark the Solung celebration. Competitions on Folk dance, traditional and modern dances performed by the troupes from Adi communities stole the limelight.

Inaugurating the cultural programme, Tamoli Tako, Superintending Engineer Itanagar, stressed on preservation of age-old culture and tradition that gives distinct identity to the Adis. Effort should be made to involve younger generation of the community for preservation and promotion of culture and tradition, he said.

The general secretary of the Solung Gidi celebration, Tapun Taki also spoke on the occasion.

At Roing, the Solung Giidi was celebrated with pomp and gaiety at Giidi Notko, Midland.

Attending the festival, Zilla Parishad Chairperson Sipi Elapra Linggi prayed to Kiine Nane and Doyii Botte for peace, harmony and brotherhood among all the communities in the district.

ABK District Unit President, Mibom Pertin appealed all the Panchayat leaders, Gaon Burahs and all the stakeholders to join hands with the women organizations in fighting against the drug menace in the district.

Adi Cultural & Literary Society Secretary Martin Lego read out the Solung mythology. Roing Solung Celebration Committee president Aduk Paron and general secretary Tajing Darang also spoke on the occasion.

Release of Adi audio CD album, ‘Giidi Mimum’, prize distribution to the winners of various games and sports, literary and drawing competitions, performance of folk dance, modern dance and Idu dance by cultural troupes were the other highlights of the celebration.  

At Yingkiong in Upper Siang district, the Solung festival is being celebrated with traditional gaiety. Addressing the inaugural function of the festival, Parliamentary Secretary (Education and IPR etc),  Bamang Felix emphasized the need to preserve one’s festival and traditional heritage for future generation. He further exhorted the youths to follow the footsteps of the pioneers of Adi community who worked sincerely with devotion for development of the society.

Impressed with the scenic beauty of the district, he emphasized on tourism development to attract more tourists and to generate self-employment avenues. Felix also called for preservation of flora and fauna   for environment protection.

Earlier, MLA cum PWD parliamentary secretary Alo Libang exhorted the community to maintain  true essence of festival celebration  to promote brotherhood and harmony amongst all. Former APSIC Commissioner Bani Danggen highlighted the essence of Solung festival and urged all to have faith in traditional customs and rituals of the tribal society.

The festival will continue for three-four days with display of traditional items and local food stalls.



Roads that take us home

[ Tongam Rina ]

The other day yours truly got ticketed for wrong parking by the Chief Estate Office near a health clinic on a busy and crowded road in Itanagar.

Though deeply embarrassed, it gave some amount of satisfaction that laws are being implemented in the town known for its bad traffic management. The contentment did not last long as it was soon found out that other than disfiguring the already grubby car by putting an ugly sticker; the officers did not have the power to impose fine.

But things might improve in the long run if the government, as it proclaims, is serious about improving the roads and empower Traffic Department with human resources as well as adequate funds.

Following the directives

of the Supreme Court, states have set up Road Safety Council to control road accidents.

Arunachal has one of the worse road safety records in the country and tops the North East India states with highest number of deaths per Lac population.   The record is not surprising given the fact that state’s road network is patchy with extremely poor conditions. Added to pitiable constructions are uneven terrains. But even when we know these realities, we are far from being careful. Most drivers/riders think that they are not only invincible but bring in their set of rules with a very good knack for uncontrolled speed ready to mow down anyone that comes on the way.

Heart skips a beat as young girls and women wrap a duppatta instead of helmet. Boys and men who refuse to grow up are worse, baring their tattooed bodies; without helmet or riding gears. It is common sight to see young parents with their small children on bikes with no protection. One can’t help but say a prayer for safety of all. With lack of trauma centres or highway ambulances, it’s the ill-equipped Police who are first responders, with no medical kits or health workers. It is time bare minimum facilities are introduced to prevent casualties as most deaths are preventable if there are medical teams as first responders.

In a state notorious for seeking compensations and imposition of fines, it is rather strange that the citizens as well as the state continue to be so reckless. VIP convoys, unmindful of congested roads, are not only a bad sight but is a major nuisance too adding to the chaos. Because of bad road, people who commute by public transport pass gas. The roads are that bad. Arunachal must be the only state without traffic lights or even zebra crossings. With absence of public facilities, people pay literally in the form of “fines”.

Some samples of how things can terribly go wrong after an accident.

A young man on a bike collides with a car. Both speeding. Rider is knocked down and hit a parked car. He dies on the spot. The relatives refuse to register a case but seek money. If compensation not paid, warned of dire consequences including packing up from the town. Fine paid.

A rider is injured following a collision with a car. The driver of the car is a bureaucrat. Apart from paying for medical expenses, the officer is asked to give a job to the injured or Rs 15000 every month.

Bikes collide.  One dies at the spot while the other is taken to hospital with serious injuries. The doctors are not allowed to treat the injured patient. Three agonising hours later, he dies.



Flood situation remains grim in Namsai

ITANAGAR, Sept 1: Over sixty villages under various circles of Namsai district have been badly affected by the current flood.

Around 600 people from 117 families are still taking shelter in three relief camps set up at Jenglai, Kaba and New Silatoo, informed Namsai Deputy Commissioner RK Sharma.

Although water level in various rivers in the district have gradually started to recede this morning with slight improvement in the weather condition, the Noa Dehing, Lohit and Jengthu Rivers are still flowing above the danger level.

The district administration and disaster management authority are closely monitoring the situation and advised the villagers living in low- lying areas to remain alert as many dwelling houses are still under flood water.

There was report of heavy damage to dyke at New Silatoo and Bereng River and erosions at many places. Medical teams, including veterinarians have been put on alert to tackle any outbreak of diseases post-flood. They are also regularly visiting the relief camps, the DC informed.

Further, sufficient relief materials have been provided to the relief camps.

Losses and damages in the flood are being received from every part of the district but the actual losses could be assessed only after water recedes, the Deputy Commissioner said.



State reviews flood situation

ITANAGAR, Sept 1: Following the devastating floods, a meeting was chaired by Chief Secretary today to review the situation and destruction to public infrastructure in the last one week in the state.

The meeting which was attended by Parliamentary Secretaries, Commissioners and Secretaries issued directions to Deputy Commissioners in the district to take all preventive as well as relief measures to restore essential public services and ensure minimum loss to lives and properties.  

All road construction agencies of PWD, RWD, BRO and MoRTH have been put on highest alert and directed to initiate immediate restoration measures, said an official release. Adequate fund shall be provided to the administration and concerned agencies by the State Govt based on damage assessments while  DCs and construction agencies have been directed to make judicious use of funds released recently for relief and restoration.

 Further instructions have been reiterated once again to DCs and Heads of Department not to grant leave to the engineering staff and administrative staff so that relief measures are not adversely affected.

Meanwhile, the state shall request the Central Government to immediately depute a team to assess the damage.



Health Directorate staff say goodbye to Dr. Nishing

ITANAGAR, Sept 01: Director of Health Services Dr. Kartik Nishing was given a warm farewell by the staff of the State Health Directorate on his retirement on superannuation. They also bade affectionate farewell to another staff Rono Mohan Dey, Statistical Assistant, State TB Cell at the same function organized to say them goodbye.

Dr. Nishing was first posted as Junior Medical Officer at Rumgong PHC in 1983 under DMO Along.

“At that time there was no road communication to Rumgong. I had to march on foot for two days,” said Dr. Nishing with a chuckle.

Remembering the fond memories spent with Nishing, Dr. Saibal Bhattacharjee, SMO (SG), of General Hospital Pasighat who was posted as MO at Boleng PHC at that time goes retro.

“He would always stop by for a cup of tea on his way to Rumgong on foot at my quarter,” he shared.

After serving for almost a decade at Rumgong, he was transferred to General Hospital, Naharlagun where he took the charge of Medical Superintendent on April 25, 1993. Thereafter he was promoted to Chief Medical Superintendent of the same hospital in 2002. His next promotions came as Joint DHS, NMEP (2006), Additional Director of Health Services (2008) and finally as DHS in July, 2011.

“Sir was our inspiration for becoming a doctor,” said Dr. B Natung, DDHS (GA) and Dr.T Khanna, SPO, NPCB.

Dey joined as a ‘BCG technician’ in 1980 at District Hospital Ziro. Thereafter, he was transferred to State TB cell, Naharlagan in 1983 where he was later promoted to ‘Health Visitor’ and then to ‘Statistical Assistant’ which he served diligently till his retirement.

Dr. Hage Tam, DDHS (Leprosy) praised him as an exceptional worker while Dr. Moji Jini, the new incumbent DHS and Dr. Emi Rumi, Jt. DHS (P&D) recalled him as the ‘Unsung hero’ of the State TB Cell.

Dr. Hage Tabyo, Additional DHS, Dr. RD Khrimey, CMS, ASH, Dr. R Doye, JT.DHS (DME), Dr. A Yirang, Jt.DHS (NVBDCP), Dr. T Lollen, DDHS (Public Health), Boa Yanya-Tao, Principal, Arunachal State Nursing School, Dr. N Plaza, SMO (SG), UK Mitra, food Safety and PN Mazumdar, TO,IDD, were present among other medical staff.

Earlier, Dr. T.Kampu, DDHS (P&D) and Dr.KT Mullung, DDHS (NVBDCP) presented gifts to both the outgoing officers.



ZP comes out in support of aggrieved

DRDA employees

Agitators threaten to take legal recourse

ITANAGAR, Sept 1: The Zilla Parishad of East Kameng district has come out in support the agitating DRDA staff in the state.

The DRDA employees have been playing a very crucial role in the implementation of various rural development schemes and the ongoing strike will hamper the poverty alleviation programme of the Central Government aiming to remove rural poverty, said East Kameng ZP Chairperson Meyuk Cheda.

Online submission of various reports and returns, uploading the data in MIS module, management of newly created blocks, field monitoring of various ongoing works are purely managed by the employees of the DRDA.  Besides, some officers and staff of the DRDA are even managing various administrative offices in the district. Only due to their persuasion, the State Government is able to submit proposal to Government of India for release of fund against various programmes, like IAY, IWMP, NREGS etc, said the ZPC.

Besides the Rural Development Programmes the District Administration entrust them the responsibility for execution of various schemes under MPLAD, MLALAD, SPA, Panchayat Fund etc, Cheda said. He appealed to the Chief Minister and Secretary RD to intervene in the matter and find out an amicable solution to their demands.

The DRDA employees in the state yesterday started state-wide five-day pen and tool down strike after state government failed to address their demands despite repeated requests.

Meanwhile, the DRDA employees of East Kameng district have threatened to take legal recourse against the state government if their demands were not met.

“We will go to any extent, including legal recourse, if our demands are not fulfilled,” the East Kameng unit of DRDA Employees Welfare Association stated in a release.

“We do not want lip services, we want prompt action in favour of our demands,” it said.

The district DRDA unit also strongly objected to recent reported appointments against various posts in the Agency (DRDA) undermining the order of the previous RD Director stopping any further appointments and also without resolving the ongoing problem.

While observing the strike, the DRDA staff of Khonsa, Tirap resolved to launch the next phase of peaceful and democratic movement shortly for fulfillment of their demands.



‘Roads under state PWD going from bad to worst’

TCS, ATYO demand immediate repair of Dapo-Ziro and Bam roads

ITANAGAR, Sept 1: Tagin Cultural Society (TCS) and All Tagin Youth Association (ATYO) have demanded the Upper Subansiri Deputy Commissioner to take initiative to repair the stretch of the road from Daporijo to Ziro and Daporijo to Bam which are lying in deplorable condition for years for want of maintenance.

Describing the hardship faced by the people of Upper Subansiri district due to bad condition of the roads, a delegation of TCS and ATYO today urged the Deputy Commissioner to appraise the problem to the state government and State PWD for immediate repair of the said roads.

“When the said roads were under BRO for about 60 years, roads were well maintained and there was uninterrupted flow of traffic except in few adverse circumstances. The conditions of the said roads have gone from bad to worst and are left to the mercy of weather and rain god since the State PWD took over the roads from BRO,” said the joint memorandum submitted to the Deputy Commissioner by TCS and ATYO.

“…. these roads are the lifeline for about one lakh people of the district and in the event of road blockade due to non-maintenance, there is every possibility of people facing untold miseries, including deaths. In case of any loss of life and property due to poor condition of the road, the PWD (Highway), the contractor and the State Govt. must be answerable to the people,” the memorandum added.

The TCS further decided to launch democratic movement shortly if the concern authority does not take up road restoration works immediately.



Byaling hands over appointment letters to family of Wak incident

AALO Sept 1: Home and Power Minister Tanga Byaling today handed over appointment letters of government jobs to the eligible family members of the four persons, who were killed by electrocution at Wak village.

Addressing a public meeting at Wak Village, Byaling said the state government took prompt action to fulfill the grievances of the family members of the deceased and demands of Wak Ragi Action Committee within the framework of Govt. guidelines.

“We stand firmly with the aggrieved family members of the victims,” he said and sought cooperation from the villagers and the department concerned so that no such unfortunate incident takes place in future.

He also asked the department to constitute a monitoring committee and supervise all works from time to time.

Tumpe Ete, ZPM Pubu Yombo appealed to the Minister to also look into previous demands of Rs.50 lakh to the family of the victims, shifting of electric poles from the WRC fields, replacement of obsolete LT posts and consider necessary assistance for upbringing and maintenance of the ten-month-old baby of one of the victims.

Earlier, Byaling inspected the Hydel project at Kamba. DIPRO



The McMahon Line and Its History


[ Dr Tage Habung ]


Even after British occupation of Assam in 1826, the boundary of Assam was not properly defined. Treaty of Yandaboo simply stipulated that the Burmese would not interfere in Assam and its dependences. The unsettled state of the boundary could no longer be neglected because by the beginning of the seventies of nineteenth century, the economy of Assam had become promising and trade and industry had made a good start. The revenue of the Assam Valley increased and it started providing a good surplus. But the economy depended upon the administrative capacity to maintain law and order in the Brahmaputra Valley. At the same time North Frontier Tract, adjoining area of Brahmaputra valley became detrimental for British economic interest. Therefore, British during their rule in Assam drew three important lines in North East Frontier Tract, viz., the Inner line; Outer line; and McMahon line. These lines were purposefully drawn by British to end-up their colonial interest and as such these lines only serve colonial interest not the people of this region. Of these three lines, the later remained as most controversy and created a much trouble to this region.

McMahon Line, formally known as an imaginary line on the map, is all along the northern stretch of Arunachal Pradesh. The line was named after Sir Henry McMahon, the then secretary in the Indian foreign department. He was the main negotiator and representative of Great Britain at the conference held in 1912–13 in Simla, now called Shimla, in the state of Himachal Pradesh to settle frontier and other matters relating to Tibet. The line travels a length of approximately about 1,030 km. It runs from the eastern border of Bhutan along the crest of the Himalayas until it reaches the great bend in the Brahmaputra River where that river emerges from its Tibetan course into the Assam Valley. In order words, it extends from the East of Bhutan to the Isu Razzi Pass situated on Irrawady - Salwaan water parting. This line on the map was secret by-product of the Shimla deliberation 1913-14, which was accepted by the Government of Tibet and India as demarcated boundary line between India and Tibet. This line is the boundary with Tibet from the Bhutan border to the tri-junction of China, India and Burma follows in general the crest of the Great Himalayan Range. The range, for a larger part also, forms the main water divide between the Tibetan plateau to the north and the mountains to the south. To the British, the line marked the geographic, ethnic, and administrative boundary between the two regions, and delegates from Great Britain, China, and Tibet agreed that the frontier between Tibet and northeastern India indeed should follow the crest of the high Himalayas. Two days later, however, the Chinese republican government disavowed its delegate and refused to sign the convention. Even later on, the Chinese Government refused to recognize this line as they considered Shimla Convention agreement was only between India and Tibet, and they had not been part of it. Consequently, this remained as root cause for India’s trouble in 1962.

From the dawn of their rule in Brahmaputra Valley, the British deliberately avoided the direct administration to hilly areas, especially the North-East Frontier Tracts. Though it had clearly defined their limit of direct administrative control in form of ‘Inner Line’, but they did not bother about the ‘external boundary’. External limits of the North-East Frontier Tracts had been very vaguely defined in the form ‘Outer Line.’ And British claimed that they have indirect control over the areas lying between these two lines. However, the issue of demarcation of the northern external boundary could not be kept vague and pending after increase of Chinese influence in hills of NEFT. Though British did not want to run direct administration over this region considering tribal people of this region as uncivilized and barbaric, at the same time they did not want to lose this region because of two reasons, firstly, NEFT was full of natural resources especially the forest resource, therefore, the British wanted to have some control over this region so that they can benefit from these forest resources. Secondly, they wanted the NEFT as buffer state to protect the British economic interest in Assam.  

In fact, the last quarter of nineteenth century was very crucial for British India. Russia was expanding her spheres of influence to whole central Asia. By the 1890s, the Central Asian khanates of Khiva, Bukhara and Kokand had fallen, becoming Russian vassals. With Central Asia in the Tsar’s grip, the ‘Great Game’ now shifted eastward to China, Mongolia and Tibet. From the British perspective, the Russian Empire’s expansion into Central Asia threatened to destroy the “jewel in the crown” of the British Empire, India. The British feared that Tibet would become a staging post for a Russian invasion of India. This historical association of Tibet with Russia, supported by certain later developments was enough to confirm the British in their suspicious of Russian intentions in Central Asia. It was this suspicion which precipitated the British into an acknowledgement of Chinese suzerainty over Tibet.

The relative position of the British Government vis-à-vis Tibet remained static until 1886. In 1886, the Tibetan debouched from the Chumbi Valley; a corridor of fertile land flanked by the territory of Nepal on the side and Bhutan on the other, and occupied a strip of Sikkimese some twenty miles deep. Therefore, in 1888, British send small expedition and expelled the intruder without difficulty. In 1890, a Sikkim-Tibet convention was concluded with China, under this convention British recognised the Chinese suzerainty over Tibet recognised. The convention defined clearly the boundary between Sikkim and Tibet as ‘the crest of the mountain range separating the waters flowing into the Sikkim Teesta and its effluent from the waters flowing into the rivers of Tibet’. This was supplemented by set of Trade Regulations, 1893, which was concluded and appended to the Sikkim-Tibet convention. The main purpose of these instruments, as far as Britain was concerned, was to secure formal Chinese recognition of her paramount rights in Sikkim; but they dealt, in details, with matter of commerce, frontier-delimitation and so forth.

 Thus, during most of the nineteenth century, the British government dealt with Tibet through the Chinese government which possessed sovereignty over Tibet. But China’s hold over Tibet, precarious already, was further weakened by her disastrous war with Japan in 1894-95; this followed on heels of a bloody Muslim rebellion in her north-western provinces which cut one of Peking’s main lines of communication. The Tibetans, who detested their Chinese overlord, found it easy to take the line that, since they had not been party to the convention 1890 or to the Trade Regulation of 1893. The provisions of neither were bidding on them; and form this obdurate attitude, which the Chinese were powerless to modify, stemmed an endless series of vexatious incidents. With dawn of twentieth century, the British grew deep concern for Tibet because of growing declination of Qing or Manchu dynasty. Meanwhile, it was speculated and suspected that China had surrendered their right over Tibet to Russia, which could be intolerable for the British economic interest. In the summers of 1900 and 1901 Dorjieff Lama, a close associate of Dalai Lama led embassies from the Dalai Lama to Russia expressing official greetings. His presence at the embassies was to spark a particularly interesting example of ‘The Great Game’ between Great Britain and Russia.

 In 1902, there were persistent rumours of a secret treaty between Russia and Tibet at which the Chinese Government was reported to be ready to connvi…….. Further, there was frequent talk on the Indian border of consignments of Russian arms reaching Lhasa. In fact, this was the period in which “Great Game,” between the Russia and Britain moves eastward of Asia. To counteract the Russian influence in Tibet, therefore, in 1903, Lord Curzon, the then Viceroy of India send an expedition to Tibet. This expedition was headed by Colonel Francis Younghusband and came to known as Younghusband Mission of Tibet.

 Primary objective of this mission was to establish diplomatic relations and trade between the British Raj and Tibet, while the secondary reason for the expedition was to quell the possible Russian influence in Tibet. On 19 July 1903, Younghusband arrived at Gangtok, the capital city of the Indian state of Sikkim, to prepare for his mission. A letter from the under-secretary to the government of India to Younghusband on 26 July 1903 was send, which stated that “In the event of your meeting the Dalai Lama, the government of India authorizes you to give him the assurance which you suggest in your letter.” The British took a few months to prepare for the expedition which pressed into Tibetan territories in early December 1903. The entire British force numbered over 3,000 fighting men and was accompanied by 7,000 sherpas, porters and camp followers. The British authorities had also thought of the difficulty of mountain fighting, and so dispatched a force with many Gurkha and Pathan troops, who were from mountainous regions.

 The Tibetans were aware of the expedition. To avoid bloodshed the Tibetan general at Yetung pledged that if the British made no attack upon the Tibetans, he would not attack the British. Colonel Younghusband replied, on 6 December 1903, that “we are not at war with Tibet and that, unless we are ourselves attacked, we shall not attack the Tibetans”. When Younghusband and his team at capital city of  Lhasa on 3 August 1904, they discover that the thirteenth Dalai Lama had fled to Urga, the capital of Outer Mongolia, at the advice of his Russian disciple, Agvan Dorjieff. He went first to Mongolia, and then made his way to Beijing. For this, the Chinese government stripped him of his titles and had their Chinese Amban post notices around Lhasa that the Dalai Lama had been deposed, and that the Chinese Amban was now in charge. Thubten Gyatso stayed in the Chinese capital from 1906 to 1908. He returned to Lhasa in 1909, disappointed by Chinese policies towards Tibet.

 However, Tibetans tore down the notices, and Tibetan officials ignored the Chinese Amban. The Chinese Amban escorted the British into the city with his personal guard, but informed them that he did not have any authority to negotiate with them. The Tibetans told them that only the absent Dalai Lama had authority to sign any accord. But Younghusband intimidated the regent, Ga-den Tri Rinpoche, and any other local officials he could gather together as an ad-hoc government, to sign a treaty drafted unilaterally by him, known subsequently as the Anglo-Tibetan Agreement of 1904. Finally on 7th September, 1904, bilateral treaty known as the Lhasa Convention was signed between British and Tibet. Under this treaty, it was agreed that no Tibetan territory would be given to any foreign country. This activated the Chinese into embarking upon an expansionist policy in Tibet, Nepal and Bhutan (Chowdhury: 1996; 8). But owing to signing of the Anglo-Chinese (1906) and Anglo-Russian Convention (1907), the treaty of 1904 remained ineffective. The Chinese position was that Tibet was not independent from China, so Tibet could not have independently signed treaty any such agreement was invalid without Chinese assent.

The British policy at that time inclined to regard its dealings with Tibet principally as the search for a buffer between Russia and India and to devote attention chiefly to the effect it might have on Russia. There was little serious thought that a buffer might be needed between India and China. The same fear of Russia impelled the British to ignore possibility of future danger from the direction of China, and precipitated them into concluding the preposterous Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907. Among the other provisions, article II of the Convention sold away Tibet’s independence to China. The relevant article reads:

“In conformity with the admitted principle of the suzerainty of China over Tibet, Great Britain and Russia engage not to enter into negotiations with Tibet except through the intermediary of the Chinese Government”.

As events proved later, it was not a victory for the British but a diplomatic defeats vis-s-vis China because the British found themselves helpless when China showed her determination to impose her will on Tibet, considering Tibet as nothing more than another province of China. Consequently, as the British troops withdrew from the Chumbi Valley in 1908, the Chinese troops started showing its determination. The 13th Dalai Lama return to Tibet in 1909 and no sooner Dalai Lama return to Tibet, the Chinese began to reassert their overlordship over Tibet. By the end of 1909, Chinese troops under the leadership of Chao-Erh-Feng along with force of 6,000 entered into Tibet. The Chinese at this stage aimed not merely to strengthen their control over Tibet but also to check the British influence along the Indo-Tibetan frontier. In the interest of her diplomacy in Asia, Great Britain had pledged for Tibet’s independence to China but in vain.

In the month of February, 1910, Chinese troops entered the Lhasa, which alarmed Dalai Lama. Having occupied the Lhasa, the Chinese troops marched very close to the border of Sikkim. In May 1910, the British Government in Bengal and Assam was alerted about the reported appearance of Chinese troops at Rima at the head of Mishmi Hills in Frontier Tracts. The British Government of India was taken by surprise, and, for the first time, became aware of the vulnerability of the northern frontiers of India. As early as July,1910, the Lieutenant Governor enquired of the Government of Bengal and Assam with reference to the Chinese occupation of Rima. The Viceroy Lord Minto posed the question in his telegram on 23rd October, 1910, to the Secretary General of the State, the then Lord Morley as follows:

“In consequence of proceeding of Chinese in Rima and the vicinity of tribal tracts on the North-East Frontier Tracts, the question of our future relations with these tribes is causing anxiety.”

The Secretary of State refused to countenance any forward policy at that time, and advised that the question of policy ‘must be left to Lord Hardinge’ who was to joint very shortly as the new Viceroy. Meanwhile, the situation in North-East Frontier Tracts caused further alarm when 13th Dalai Lama fled to India on 25th November, 1910. After reaching India, Dalai Lama conveyed the British India that the China would not rest contended with Tibet only and would certainly try to spread their influence across Himalaya. At the same time, a intelligence reports arrived to British India that all trade between the Tibetans and the Miju Mishmis of frontier tracts had been stopped by the Chinese, which actually confirming the fear of Dalai Lama. Therefore, Sir Lancelot Hare, the than Lieutenant Governor wrote a letter to new Viceroy Lord Hardinge, which states:

“I think I hardly brought out with sufficient distinctness one important consideration which should induce us to press forward beyond the limits by which under a self-denying ordinance our frontier is at present limited ……… We have an Inner Line and Outer Line. Up to the Inner Line we administer we in the ordinary way. Between the Inner Line and Outer Line we only administer politically …….” Further he wrote “………we would not permit any general increase of activity in this direction nor we can recommend that any sort of promise be given to the tribes that they rely on our support or production in the event of Chinese or Tibetan aggression.”

This development of both side along and beyond the Outer Line, give a serious consideration to the British Government regarding the boundary problem. Considering the necessity of containing the Chinese advance across the frontier, the British Government decided to send Noel Williamson’s expedition into the Adi Hills. Objective of this expedition was to carry out surveys and exploration to obtain the knowledge requisite for the determination of a suitable boundary between India and China. But unfortunately, before Williamson could complete his survey of Adi Hills, he was murdered.

Meanwhile Chao-Erh-Feng, though occupied the Lhasa but he failed to subjugate entire Tibet. There was active resistance to the Chinese domination in the south-east, while in Lhasa the people resisted the Chinese in every way. On the other hand, 13th Dalai Lama was in exile in India, tried to obtain British and Russian help against the China, but in vain. Qing troops in Tibet now willing to make reconciliation with the spiritual head of the Tibet. But before there could be any agreement between the Qing Emperor and Dalai Lama over the issue of Tibet, a revolution broke-out in China in 1911.

The Chinese revolution of 1911, popularly known as the Xinhai Revolution, overthrown Qing or Manchu Dynasty had immediate effect on Tibet. As a result of this revolution, Tibetan militia launched a surprise attack on the Qing garrison stationed in Tibet. Afterwards the Qing officials in Lhasa were forced to sign the “Three Point Agreement” which provided for the surrender and expulsion of Qing forces in central Tibet. China’s provisional President of New Republican Government Yuan Shikai sent a telegram to the 13th Dalai Lama, restoring his earlier titles. The Dalai Lama spurned these titles, replying that he “intended to exercise both temporal and ecclesiastical rule in Tibet.” In 1913, Dalai Lama, who was earlier in exiled to India, returned back to Tibet and reasserted his authority and his independence from China. Thereafter he issued a proclamation that stated:

“That relationship between the Chinese emperor and Tibet had been that of patron and priest and had not been based on the subordination of one to the other.” Further he stated, “We are a small, religious, and independent nation”.

In early 1913, Agvan Dorzhiev and two other Tibetan representatives signed a treaty between Tibet and Mongolia in Urga, proclaiming mutual recognition and their independence from China. The 13th Dalai Lama later told a British diplomat that he had not authorized Agvan Dorzhiev to conclude any treaties on behalf of Tibet. This disorganized state of affairs in Tibet again began to pose a threat to the Indian affairs and the commercial interests of the British Empire. The Japanese subjects were in intimate relations with the high authorities in Lhasa and Russian students were receiving training in the Kumbum monastery on the Tibetan Frontier; a Russian Buriat and Japanese were training the Tibetan troops. The collapse of Chinese power and the prospect of Russian intervention and intrigue changed the whole situation. The Mongol-Tibet treaty, which concluded in 1913 at the Urga gave the Russian an indirect but real basis of intervention in Tibet affairs. The chance of Tibet undergoing the fate of Outer Mongolia was imminent.

This stage was great dilemma for the British India. There was every possibility of Tibet would fall under the control of Russian arms, which would be intolerable for the British India. The alternative before them was either they could convert Tibet into a thinly veiled British protectorate as was case with Nepal, Bhutan and Sikkim, as suggested by Dalai Lama previously. Secondly, British could help Tibet to be an independent country. But it quite certain that Tibet could not stand alone without the help of any foreign power and would fall an easy victim to Chinese aggression. There was also a risk of Tibet throwing herself into the arms of the Russians, which it was the primary aim of the British to resist and eliminate. And the third alternative was to allow China to re-conquer Tibet and constitute it into a Chinese province. But that would have left the possibility of intrigues and incursions into British territories in India and Burma.

The Government of India now debated over the issues of Tibet. Neither China’s policy of considering Tibet as a province nor the Dalai Lama’s rejection of Chinese suzerainty suited the British. They wanted to keep the fiction of China’s position of suzerain as the Russians had done in Outer Mongolia because it provided China with some legal primacy while depriving her of any effective control. Therfore, on 17th Auguest 1912, the British Government proposed to the new Republican Government of China that Tibet’s status be negotiated on the basis on the situation which had existed before the Younghusband Mission of 1904. The Chinese Government on the other hand, well aware of Russian design in Mongolia and the weakness of their own Government accepted the proposal in which, there will be representative from Lhasa as a co-equal plenipotentiary in the negotiation. This paved the way for tripartite conference between the British, China and Tibet in 1913-14.

With the view of settling the Tibetan question, British India foreign office on May 23, 1913 invited the Chinese government for a joint conference, which would include a representative from Tibetan government, to arrive at a tripartite agreement. The conference was formally inaugurated on 6th October, 1913 at New Delhi under the chairmanship of Sir Henry MocMohan, the then Foreign of British India. The Tibetan delegate appointed to represent the Dalai Lama was Lama Lonchen Shatra, someone who had seldom left his native land but surprised the British and Chinese delegates about his knowledge of men and grasp of political affairs. China was represented by Ivan Chen, a widely travelled diplomat who spoke English well and had served for nine years in the Chinese Legation in London as counselor. Though Chen headed the delegation, but the power behind the scene was one Lu Hsing Chi, who was considered an expert on Indian and Tibetan affairs.

The convention opening session was held on October 13, 1913 at Dharbhanga Palace house with Lama Lonchen laying his claims on the table, stressing recent Chinese excesses and asserting Tibet’s independence. Ivan Chen counterclaimed China’s sovereignty over Tibet with the right to station a resident (Amban) in Lhasa garrisoned with 2600 men. In November 1913, McMohan made a 1906 map of Tibet and the Surrounding Regions published by Royal Geographic Society as the basis of the ongoing discussion. When conference re-convening on January 12, 1914 McMohan on February 17, 1914, after brief disruption on December 24, 1913, McMohan presented a map supporting a buffer state idea by the two-zone proposal as a solution of the political issue by the recognition of autonomy for Outer Tibet, whilst reserving to China the right to re-establish such a measure of control in Inner Tibet as would restore and safeguard her historic position, without in any way infringing the integrity of Tibet as geographical and political entity. While Ivan Chen and Lonchen Shatra argued the pros and cons of McMohan proposals into spring and summer, Chinese and Tibetan troops fought one another on the eastern-Tibet border.

Discussion continued for about six month in which the Tibetan and British representatives at the conference agreed to the line, which ceded Tawang and other Tibetan areas to the British Empire. The Chinese representative had no problems with the border between British India and Outer Tibet, however on the issue of the border between Outer Tibet and Inner Tibet the talks broke down. Thus, the Chinese representative refused to accept the agreement and walked out. Not being able to settle the vexed border and frustration creeping in on July 3, 1914, Ivan Chen informed the conference that Peking’s very explicit instructions enjoined him not to sign the Tripartite Convention. Lonchen then reported his instructions to Lhasa said that as he had accepted the Convention, he should sign it. Finally on 27th April, 1914, a convention was signed under which Tibet was divided into two zones, viz., the Inner Tibet and Outer Tibet.

Outer Tibet was to be the wider area to the east of the historic Yangtse frontier, over which the Tibetan Government had many centuries exercised complete jurisdiction. Here, the Chinese were not to send their troops, nor station any civil or military personal, nor establish any colonies. But as a symbol of their suzerainty, they might install at Lhasa an Amban to look after the Chinese interest. Inner Tibet was to be the broad peripheral area of Tibet extending in the north to the Atlya Tagh range and in the east to the old provincial borders of Kansu and Szechuan in which the population was mainly Tibetan by race and religion. Chinese would have full administrative authority over this zone, subject to the provision that it could not be made a Chinese province and, in the selection and appointment of high priests of the monasteries control was to be vested in Lhasa authorities. McMahon spelt out this solution in the form of a draft convention and the proposed boundaries of Outer and Inner Tibet were shown on the accompanying map.

 As soon McMohan and Lonchen Shatra had signed the document, which give birth to McMohan Line, Sir Henry McMahon closed the conference after a tripartite negotiation had been held for nine months but only two nations got to sign it, which remained secret till 1937. After Britain and Tibet signed the border agreement, Ivan Chen declared that his government had instructed him to announce that they would not recognize any treaty or similar document that might now or hereafter be signed between Great Britain and Tibet. This marked the beginning of border controversy between the India and China.

 Eventually, along with the tripartite conference, the British Government was having bipartite negotiation with Tibet in two important aspects. The first related to the delineation of a boundary alignment between India and Tibet to the north of frontier tracts, and the second to a new Trade Agreement between these two countries. Consequently, in this bipartite conference a part from Tawang, Tibet accorded Walong which situated on the left bank of the Lohit River to British India. As for the situation and inclusion of Walong, the Government of India at first was hesitant, but subsequently it was found to be outside the Tibetan province of Zayul Chu till the advent of the Chinese and inside the Indian side of the frontier, from watershed, geographical and historical point of view (Bose: 1997; 138). But this had been much resented by the Chinese Government. Ivan Chen held that the Tibetan Government did not possess any control over the Zayul Chu which he held, was inhabited by independent tribes called the Miris, the Mishings, the Adis and the Mishmis.

 All the hopes and aspirations of McMahon Line were dashed to grounds in due course. In the very first instance, though the Indo-Tibetan boundary was delimited but it could not be demarcated because of the terrain through which this line rans mostly covered with snow. Secondly, the actual documents of the conference remained secret and unpublished till 1937. It was only in 1937, that the map showing the McMohan Line as a boundary between Tibet and India was published by Trigonometrical Survey of India, in which Tawang was shown as a part of Tibet. But again the Dirang Dzong in the west to Walong in the east was not included in the map. The British set their feet in the region in 1944. Moreover, Chinese never accepted this boundary since, according to her, the Shimla itself was invalid.

Numerous changes occurred in the late 1940s. With the creation of the Republic of India and the separate Islamic Republic of Pakistan in 1947, and the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in China in 1949. From Dirang Dzong in the west to Walong in the east, the British set their feet in the region in 1944, and Tibet changed its position on the McMahon Line in 1947 when the Tibetan Government wrote a note presented to the newly independent Indian Ministry of External Affairs laying claims to the Tibetan district (Tawang) south of the McMahon Line. When India gained its independence from Britain in 1947 it inherited all of the British territorial agreements, and as such inherited the McMahon Line as the border between it and China. Indian belief in the legitimacy of the McMahon line dated back to the Simla Convention of 1914, as well as to the numerous maps of British India with the line delineating its northern border. But Chinese claimed that the legacy that British inherited to India was not authentic. By this statement they indicate the delineation of McMahon Line which was not recognized since its inception.  

 But one of the most basic policies for the Indian government was that of maintaining cordial relations with China. The Indian government wished to revive its ancient friendly ties with China. When the People’s Republic of China was declared in China, India was among the first countries to give it diplomatic recognition. After coming to power, Republic of China under the leadership of Chu Sakai announced that its army would be occupying Tibet. But the newly formed Republic of China was more active in posting troops to the Aksai Chin border than the newly formed Indian republic was.

India decided to take moves to ensure a stable Indo-Chinese border. In August 1950, China expressed its gratitude to Indian attempts to “stabilize the Indo-Chinese border”. To clear any doubts or ambiguities, Prime Minister Nehru stated in Parliament in 1950 that “Our maps show that the McMahon Line is our boundary and that is our boundary...we stand by that boundary and we will not let anyone else come across that boundary”.

 By 1951, China had extended numerous posts within Indian Territory in Aksai Chin (historically a part of Indian state of Ladakh). The Indian government, on the other hand, concentrated its military efforts on stopping Ladakh from being taken by Pakistani troops and did not establish itself in Aksai Chin. On various occasions in 1951 and 1952, however, the government of China expressed the idea that there were no frontier issues between India and Chinese Tibet to be worried about. Later, in September 1951, India declined to attend a conference in San Francisco for the conclusion of a peace treaty with Japan because China, which India viewed as an important factor in this treaty, was not invited because of its status as an international pariah. In the coming years India strived to become China’s representative in world matters, as China had been isolated from many issues. India vigorously pressed, since the start of the 1950s, for the Republic of China to be included within the United Nations.  

 The People’s Liberation Army defeated the Tibetan army in a battle at Chamdo in 1950 and Lhasa recognized Chinese sovereignty over Tibet in 1951. The Indian army asserted control of Tawang at this time, overcoming some armed resistance and expelling its Tibetan administrators. In 1954, the China and India concluded the Five Principles, which stressed; (1) mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty; (2) mutual non-aggression; (3) non-interference in each other’s domestic affairs; (4) equality and mutual benefit, and finally; (5) peaceful coexistence, under which India acknowledged Chinese sovereignty in Tibet. This agreement originates from Nehru’s optimism that post-colonial nations could invalidate the precepts of a bipolar world, and that the regional powers of Asia can contradict the validity of traditional balance of power politics.

 Indian negotiators presented a frontier map to the Chinese that included the McMahon Line and the Chinese side did not object. At this time, the Indian government under Prime Minister Nehru promoted the slogan Hindi-Chini bhai-bhai (India and China are brothers). Nehru’s ill-conceived vision of creating Pan-Asia solidarity with the Communist China blinded him to see the ulterior motif hidden behind the diplomatic façade presented by Chinese premier Zhou Enlai. Over four decades had passed since Nehru was betrayed and the infamous slogan, “Hindi Chini Bai Bai’ was shattered into pieces, but India still carries on the same debacle policy designed by Krishna Menon. Nothing seems to have learnt from Nehru’s blunder. In 1954 India officially called the territories accorded to her side of the McMohan Line NEFA- North East Frontier Agency.  

 Nevertheless, after 1954, relationship between India and China started strained on the score of the so-called border incidents when Chinese troops began to violate the North-East Frontier of India. Consequently, on July 1, 1954 Nehru wrote a memo directing that the maps of India be revised to show definite boundaries on all frontiers, where they were previously indicated as undemarcated. The new maps also revised the boundary in the east to show the Himalayan hill crest as the boundary. In some places, this line is a few kilometers north of the McMahon Line. These new maps also revised the maps to show the countries of Bhutan and Sikkim as part of India.

In 1956, Nehru expressed concern to Zhou Enlai that Chinese maps showed some 120,000 square kilometres of Indian Territory as Chinese. Zhou responded that there were errors in the maps and that they were of little meaning. He stated that the maps needed revising from previous years where such ideas were considered to be true. In November 1956, Zhou again repeated his assurances that he had no claims based on the maps. But in the late 1950s, soon after occupying Tibet, China occupied a large tract (approximately 38,000 square km) of Aksai Chin, a remote part of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir bordering Pakistan, and built a highway (National Highway 219) through it to connect with its eastern province of Xinjiang. India considers this an illegal occupation. In the middle, or southern part of Tibet, China asserts that the border dividing Tibet and Sikkim and Uttar Pradesh are also disputed. And in the east, it lays claim to the entire state of Arunachal Pradesh.

 By 1959, the Communist Chinese openly put forward the argument rejecting the McMahon Line, on the ground that the agreement between the British and Tibetan representative was unknown to the Chinese representative. This was true in some extent as the bipartite negotiation between the British and Tibet was not known to Ivan Chen. They started constructing the road along the Ladak, which was complete violation of the 1954’s agreement between India and China. Consequently, March 31, 1959 the Dalai Lama fled from Tibet into India where he was granted political asylum. This course of events angered the Indian public as they saw it as a renunciation of Indian trade and cultural access to Tibet guaranteed in the Seventeen Points Agreement. People’s Republic of China’s officials chaffed at India’s meddling in their domestic affairs by granting asylum to the Dalai Lama and thereby violating the 1954 Panchsheel agreement. The Tibetan revolt combined with gradual Chinese assertion of borders in 1957 due to diplomatic impasse, are the primary factors contributing to a hostile Sino-Indian diplomatic relationship from 1959 to the outbreak of hostilities.  

 India on her part began to protest against this violation of the autonomy by carrying out ‘reign of terror’ in the region which was also confirmed by International Commission of Juries. Now China sharply reacted with Indian Government’s attitudes and she started encroaching in Indian boundaries further more. In 1960, India openly warned the Chinese Government about the further violation of India boundaries and if it happens, she will resort the arms. On the other hand, Zhou Enlai proposed that India drop its claim to Aksai Chin and China would withdraw its claims from NEFA. Zhou consistently refused to accept the legitimacy of India’s territorial claims; he proposed that the any negotiations had to take into account the facts on the ground. Zhou tried many times to get Nehru to accept conceding Aksai Chin, he visited India four times in 1960. However, Nehru believed that China did not have a legitimate claim over both of those territories and was not ready to give away any one of them. However, they had different opinions as to the legality of the Simla agreement which eventually led to the inability to reach a decision. Nehru’s adamancy was seen within China as Indian opposition to Chinese rule in Tibet, as China needed the highway through Aksai Chin to maintain an effective control over the Tibetan plateau. Thus, the territorial dispute from India’s perspective, coupled with the building of forward military posts by the Indian military caused the 1954 Panchsheel Agreement to not be renewed in 1961. Crossing both the claim and McMahon lines, both nations were in violation of each other’s territorial conception, and India was now physically challenging Chinese sovereignty in Tibet.

 However, by 1961, Chinese Government once again started constructing road along with the McMahon Line claiming 52,000 sq.km. of Indian sovereignty territory and actual control of 14,000 sq. km. India now replied Chinese act by establishing seven new military out-posts in Ladak and twenty-five military out-posts in North East Frontier Agency. Chinese Government now reacted violently and warned New-Delhi in these words:

“…..Should Indian Government refused to withdraw its aggressive posts and continue to carry-out provocation against Chinese posts, the Chinese frontier guards would be compelled to defend these. The Indian side will be wholly responsible for all consequences arising there from on Chinese side too.”

On the political level, talks were going on to resolve the tension between two sides. On September 8, 1962, Nehru had gone to London to attend a Commonwealth Prime Ministers’ Conference and, once again he came back with popular slogan ‘Hind-Chini Bhai Bhai. On 3 October, Zhou Enlai visited Nehru in New Delhi, promising there would be no war between the nations and reiterating his wishes to solve the dispute diplomatically. In amidst of all these development, Chinese surprisingly began to attack in India on 20th October, 1962, entering 80 miles reaching up to West Kameng and completely occupied the Tawang.

(The contributor is Assistant Professor (History) Govt. College Doimukh)


---- Editorial ----


Manipur burning

The state of Manipur is once again in news for all wrong reasons. Three persons were killed today when police opened fire on the protestors in Churachandpur district taking over all death tolls to eight. Violence erupted yesterday in the tribal belt following the passage of three bills - Protection of Manipur People Bill, 2015, Manipur Land Revenue and Land Reforms (Seventh amendment) Bill, 2015, and Manipur Shops and Establishments (Second Amendment) Bill, 2015. These bills were passed in the Manipur assembly in order to protect the indigenous people.

The tribals feared that the passage of the above laws would allow "outsiders" to have rights over tribal land. The protestors on Monday evening set ablaze houses of MLAs, minister and Member of Parliament in Churachandpur district. The latest violence has further deepened the ethnic divide in the state.  People of Imphal valley mostly comprising of Metei has been demanding implementation of ILP (Inner line permit) in the state.  State government was forced to introduce above three laws due to the pro-ILP agitation which recently rocked Imphal valley. People of Manipur have bore the brunt of years of violence unleashed by insurgent group as well as Indian security forces. It is unfortunate that this new wave of violence is not only causing untold pain to the citizen but is further deepening the ethnic divide in the state. Government of India will have to intervene, so that situation is brought under control. Further they will have to work together with state government and find out long term solution to numerous problems affecting the state of Manipur.





---- Readers Forum ----



Special category status and Arunachal’S’ fate

Dear Editor,

As the dilution of Union Budget 2014-2015 regarding ‘Special Category Status’ along with the demand of ‘Special Category State’ by Bihar few days back, though declined later, has caused a turmoil for those selected economically and backward states. The state of Arunachal Pradesh, is one among the 11 states which was categorized under it at the time of formulation of Fifth Five Year Plan.

Under the revised Gadgil Mukherjee Formula, which was in operation till 2014-2015, 30 percent of the total central assistance was earmarked for the ‘Special Category States’. In addition to it, special plan assistance (90 percent grant), untied special central assistance (100 percent grant), assistance for externally aided projects (90 percent grant), accelerated irrigation benefit programme (AIBP) assistance (90 percent grant) and central incentives for the promotion of industry on account of economic backwardness were also given.

In the recent Union Budget 2014-2015, many of these benefits were diluted mainly due to the increase in tax devolution to states from 32 percent to 42 percent of the divisible pool of the central taxes. The centre has dispensed with normal plan assistance, special central assistance and special plan assistance. The number of externally aided projects is also decreased. Allocation under AIBP has also got reduced from Rs.8,992 crore to Rs.1,000 crore.

The bigger question which arises is what our state government had done during the last four decade when the iron was hot. Although, there seem to be some developmental projects that are either completed or going on like basic education facilities, primary health care facilities, access to road connectivity etc. But is it upto the expectation of the people and have these basic amenities reached throughout the state? Even the rate at which the development is taking place is upto the mark? An egregious instance is the project related to better road connectivity to connect the interior of the villages, where many of them are still pending. If such is the rate of progress that our state had made when we were getting many benefits under ‘Special Category Status’, then think of now what will be the rate of progress where we are deprived of the most.

The present days people of Arunachal is not as same as that of the 20th Century. The state government should take it under consideration for their future safeguard and work for the better uplift and development of the society inclusively by using the central resources judiciously.


Guloi Afi




A Dark City

Dear Editor,

Pasighat, the only proposed smart city of the state with its regularly erratic power supply, if an alternate power source is not arranged, will be reeling in darkness and very well be called as the dark smart city of the country. Our M.P N.Ering, as seen in print and social media has been portrayed as a vocalist for the inclusion of Pasighat as smart city. The least is expected from a leader of his calibre who couldn’t solve the power crisis in Pasighat as MLA for 10 years and MP during previous tenure. The same story unfolds in the current tenure.

While the denizens of century old town has been vociferously upright against some union and individuals in print and social media for opposing the selection of Pasighat as smart city, the same section of people can’t even stand for a 24 hour electricity in the very town in which they have confronted the power crisis since they were born. In its history, Pasighat hasn’t seen an uninterrupted power supply at a stretch of 24 hrs. At this given backdrop, a town of which neither the MLA, MP or public nor the department is least bothered about the erratic power; the only smart city of state is certainly going to be a dark smart city. Just a day of blockade of the highway and the callous petrol pumps of the town has all of a sudden run out of petrol. Our hon’ble MP and MLA including the authorities must definitely have a say about this crisis.

The public nee an answer for the record breaking time the CC road construction is taking. Lack of logistics, machinery and man power at the site reflects the glaring biases of the contract awarded. Imagine the long years the smart city would take to see the light of the day if small stretches of road take this long. Not many months after the completion of cc road, driving on the roads would be an agony, given the narrow road and the unruly drivers. The congestion has already started in the partially completed road at Baazar.

Perhaps a one way route and no parking would be the only solution. Many buildings have come up in Baazar which had plenty of spaces that could have been used for parking in a situation like today. Thanks to our politicians and LRS department. Their biases and corruption is too glaring. The pulling down of all the kutcha houses near the airfield glorifies their mindset while the high rise buildings in the govt encroached land stays untouched. Pasighat today has houses that have lawns bigger than the only park at high region. What an irony for a to be smart city. The proposed smart city shouldn’t be a means for few people to amass wealth and the luxury cars in their garage. However, as in any other place of the country, the corridors of authorities at Pasighat are abundant with greed, corruption, biases and nepotism.

The future of the only smart city of the state is dull unless the leaders and the public in general take a bold stance which is again hoping against hope. I am sure Arunachalees will get used to whatever is the outcome of Pasighat a smart city in the making.


Mukti, Itanagar




All email and surface mails must be accompanied with contact numbers and full postal address. Do keep writing but please make sure that letters are short and to the point.        


Copyright © 2008, The Arunachal Times Publications Pvt. Ltd., Siang House, Sector - E, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh - 791111, India

All rights reserved.